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地球科学进展  2010, Vol. 25 Issue (12): 1325-1336    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2010.12.1325
IODP研究     
热液喷口系统中氧化物沉淀体的形成及微生物的作用
孙治雷1,2,李军1,2*,孙致学3,黄威1,2,崔汝勇1,2,李季伟4
1.国土资源部海洋油气资源和环境地质重点实验室,山东青岛 266071;2. 青岛海洋地质研究所,山东青岛 266071;
3. 中国石油大学石油工程学院,山东青岛 257061; 4. 中国科学院广州地球化学研究所,广东广州 510640
Formation Mechanism of Biogenic Fe-Si Oxide Deposits in Seafloor  Hydrothermal Systems
Sun Zhilei1,2, Li Jun1,2, Sun Zhixue3, Huang Wei1,2, Cui Ruyong4,Li Jiwei4
1. Key Laboratory of Marine Hydrocarbon Resources and Environmental Geology, Ministry of Land and Resources, Qingdao 266071, China;
2. Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Qingdao 266071, China;
3.School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 257061, China;
4. Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China
 全文: PDF(1752 KB)  
摘要:

根据形貌识别以及分子生物学最新研究结果,包括Gallionella ferruginea,Leptothrix ochracea 和 Mariprofundus ferrooxydans在内的嗜中性Fe氧化菌在现代甚至古代热液喷口系统的Fe氧化物沉积体的形成中起到了重要作用。对于现代热液喷口系统而言,还原性羽流进入氧化性海水时形成的氧化还原过渡带是嗜中性Fe氧化菌最重要的生存环境,它们能在此环境中与Fe的无机氧化机制展开有效竞争,藉此获取生存所必须的能量。此外,通过静电吸引和表面活性基团的键合作用,细胞能在其表面和附属器官形成Fe氧化物壳层,从而形成与细胞自身相态相似的各种丝缕状结构。丝缕状结构生长到一定程度,就会阻滞热液流体和海水混合,进而在丝缕体交织成的网络内发生传导性热冷却,使流体中的Si达到饱和,在Fe氧化物表面沉淀下来,形成现代热液喷口系统的Fe-Si“二期次”复合生长结构。与现代Fe-Si沉淀类似的古代条带状Fe建造(BIF)沉积体的近期研究成果显示,Fe的来源很可能是前寒武纪时的热液喷口系统。由于BIF形成的海洋环境处于整体缺氧状态,早期营光合作用的微生物以及与现代类似的嗜中性Fe氧化菌很可能都参与了这个过程。

关键词: 嗜中性Fe氧化菌Fe-Si沉淀BIF热液喷口系统    
Abstract:

Hydrothermal Fe-Si oxide deposits are ubiquitous in the hydrothermal vent sites at mid-ocean ridge and back-arc seafloor spreading centers. According to the recognitions of micron-scale filamentous textures and the results of molecular biology, neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria including Gallionella ferruginea, Leptothrix ochracea and the novel Mariprofundus ferrooxydans (PV-1 Strain) are considered to have a significant role in the formations of Fe-Si oxides deposits of the hydrothermal systems. These bacteria are capable of autotrophic metabolism with Fe2+as the sole electron donor,  increas the rate of Fe2+oxidation, and  then get energy for their growth. Electrostatic attraction along with the organic functional groups lead to the precipitations of iron oxides on the surface of abundant filamentous microbial structure that closely resemble the morphology of the Fe-oxidizing bacteria. Then the filaments were combined together to form a three-dimensional network. Novel observations were made of the Fe-Si framework of the network revealing the composite structure of Fe-rich filamentous in the core and the pure opal crust in the outer to form the “two-generation structure”. This indicates that the large-scale silica precipitation caused by conductive cooling  often takes place after the construction of the network. Recent studies about the Banded Iron Formations (BIF)  considered to be the analog of modern hydrothermal Fe-Si deposits  indicate an ancient hydrothermal origin for the iron. Moreover, owing to the pervasive anoxic state when the BIFs formed, the photosynthetic organisms for instance,  cyanobacteria  and the neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria are proposed to be involved in the ancient BIFs formations. 

Key words:  Neutrophilic Fe-oxidizing bacteria    Fe-Si deposits    BIF    Hydrothermal vent systems.

收稿日期: 2010-11-02 出版日期: 2010-12-10
:  P738.6  
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目“黄海北部晚第四纪沉积格局及物源控制”(编号:40976036);国际海底区域研究开发“十一五”项目“现代海底热液硫化物矿床与古代相似矿床成矿特征的比较研究”(编号:DYXM-115-02-1-09);国家高技术研究发展计划重点项目“大洋钻探站位调查关键技术研究”(编号:2008AA093001).

通讯作者: 李军(1974-),男,山东滕州人,副研究员,主要从事矿物学/矿床地球化学研究.      E-mail: junli741001@gmail.com
作者简介: 孙治雷(1975-),男,山东沂南人,博士,主要从事海洋地球化学/矿物学研究. E-mail:zhileisun@yeah.net
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孙治雷,李军,孙致学,黄威,崔汝勇,李季伟. 热液喷口系统中氧化物沉淀体的形成及微生物的作用[J]. 地球科学进展, 2010, 25(12): 1325-1336.

Sun Zhilei, Li Jun, Sun Zhixue, Huang Wei, Cui Ruyong,Li Jiwei. Formation Mechanism of Biogenic Fe-Si Oxide Deposits in Seafloor  Hydrothermal Systems. Advances in Earth Science, 2010, 25(12): 1325-1336.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2010.12.1325        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2010/V25/I12/1325

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