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地球科学进展  2008, Vol. 23 Issue (11): 1209-1217    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2008.11.1209
生态学研究     
生态系统评估的国际案例及其经验
周杨明1,3,4,于秀波2*,于贵瑞2
1. 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所,江苏 南京 210008; 2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所生态网络综合中心,北京 100101; 3.江西省山江湖开发治理委员会办公室,江西 南昌 330046;4. 中国科学院研究生院,北京 100049
A Case Study of the International Ecosystem Assessment
Zhou Yangming1,3,4,Yu Xiubo2,Yu Guirui2
1. Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China;2. Institute of Geographical Science and Natural Resources Research, CAS, Beijing 100101, China;3. Office of the Mountain-River-Lake Development Committee of Jiangxi Province, Nanchang 330046, China;4. Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
 全文: PDF(1706 KB)  
摘要:

为了给决策者和公众提供客观的生态系统状态信息,国际上开展了一系列的生态系统评估项目。这些生态系统评估可以归结为两个发展方向,一是从科学的角度客观公正地评估生态系统的状态,其主要代表是美国国家生态指标研究和美国生态系统的状态评估;二是在生态系统状态评估的基础上进一步分析生态系统与社会经济系统的联系以服务于后续的政策干预,其主要代表是千年生态系统评估和UNEP全球环境展望。综合分析这些案例发现,这些生态系统评估项目存在如下几个方面的特点或经验:①合适的生态指标是生态系统评估的科学基础;②合理的概念性评估框架是生态系统评估的核心支柱;③将生态系统与社会经济系统联系起来使评估结果能直接服务于政策;④生态系统管理的复杂性和长期性要求必须对生态系统进行连续滚动评估;⑤多利益相关方的参与是使生态系统评估的结果得到广泛认可和应用的最有效途径。如果能够将这两个发展方向结合起来,生态系统评估将能更好地服务于生态政策制定和区域可持续发展。

关键词: 生态系统评估案例分析生态指标概念性框架    
Abstract: In order to provide ecological information for public and decision-makers, some ecosystem assessment projects were implemented in the international society. Those cases could be classified into two development directions of ecosystem assessment: One inclined to report the state of ecosystems in an objective way, such as NRC's report and Heinz′s report; the other was prone to link the ecosystems to social-economic system so that concrete policy recommendations can be put forward, such as Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) and Global Environment Outlook(UNEP GEO). After those cases were analyzed comprehensively, some experiences or characteristics about those assessment projects were summarized as follows: (1)Suitable ecological indicators should be identified; (2)Reasonable conceptual framework is the core of ecosystem assessment; (3)In order to put forward policy recommendations, the linkage between ecosystems and social economic systems should be established; (4)Ecosystem assessment should be repeated periodically or irregularly; (5)Stakeholders from government, the private sector, environmental organizations, academia and the general public should be involved. In order to make the assessments contribute to ecological policy-making and the regional sustainable development, the two development directions should be integrated.
Key words: Ecosystem assessment    Case study    Ecological indicator    Conceptual framework.
收稿日期: 2008-05-21 出版日期: 2008-11-10
:  Q14  
基金资助:

国家科技支撑计划项目“国家生态恢复重建的综合监测评估关键技术研发”(编号:2006BAC08B05);科技部国际合作重大项目“鄱阳湖流域生态系统综合治理研究”(编号:2006DFB91920)资助.

通讯作者: 于秀波(1965-),男,山东枣庄人,副研究员,主要从事生态评估、湿地保护与可持续利用、生态恢复政策研究等.     E-mail: yuxb@igsnrr.ac.cn
作者简介: 周杨明(1977-),男,江西莲花人,助理研究员,主要从事生态系统管理与流域综合管理等研究.E-mail:zhouyangming@mrl.org.cn
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引用本文:

周杨明,于秀波,于贵瑞. 生态系统评估的国际案例及其经验[J]. 地球科学进展, 2008, 23(11): 1209-1217.

Zhou Yangming,Yu Xiubo,Yu Guirui. A Case Study of the International Ecosystem Assessment. Advances in Earth Science, 2008, 23(11): 1209-1217.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2008.11.1209        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2008/V23/I11/1209

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