Please wait a minute...
img img
高级检索
地球科学进展  2005, Vol. 20 Issue (6): 671-678    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2005.06.0671
综述与评述     
137Cs计年法确定湖泊沉积物沉积速率研究进展
张 燕,潘少明,彭补拙
南京大学城市与资源学系,江苏 南京 210093
AN OVERVIEW ON THE EVALUATION OF SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION RATE OF LAKE BY 137Cs DATING
ZHANG Yan; PAN Shaoming; PENG Buzhuo
Department of Urban and Resources Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
 全文: PDF(160 KB)  
摘要:

137Cs计年法利用137Cs固有的理化和沉降特性,在湖泊沉积物的137Cs垂直分布与大气137Cs沉降间确立对应关系,找出有异常137Cs含量的沉积层作为时标,但需注意137Cs从水体表面至湖底的时间和粘粒含量对各层137Cs含量的影响,并用其它方法校验时标的可靠性。再求取不同时标层间的年均沉积厚度,或因克服了压实效应而更能反映真实沉积速率的年均沉积通量,且结合GIS等手段进一步估算湖泊各区域的沉积总量;还可延伸研究湖泊内源污染负荷及相关环境演变和湖泊演化。但是,沉积柱样的分割厚度取多少才能既满足计年精度要求又不使工作量过大,137Cs的大气沉降时间与进入沉积物时间还与泥沙的陆地迁移时间有关,沉积物中究竟是否发生137Cs下渗及其机理等都还是此法应用中有待解决的问题。

关键词: 137Cs计年沉积通量滞后下渗    
Abstract:

The vertical distribution of 137Cs in sediment profiles is present in accordance with the record of 137Cs fallout variations in the atmosphere. Therefore,137Cs can be used to infer a geochronology for sediment profiles and sediment accumulation rates can be estimated by measuring vertical distribution of 137Cs in sediment profiles. But some factors must be taken into account for dating horizon in sediment profiles more accurate and precise. The time lag between the time of atmospheric deposition of 137Cs and the time of deposition of 137Cs to sediment profiles should be calculated. For some sediment profiles 137Cs concentration per unit of clay should be explained. In order to prove the accurate of 137Cs dating, sediment accumulation rates estimated by 137Cs dating should also be compared with that measured at same site by other methods, such as standard sediment survey method,210Pb dating, sedimentary lamination, pollen and so on. Then with several depositional horizons marked by 137Cs the depth (cm) or the mass (g/cm2) of sediment for different time periods can be calculated. And it can be made to compare sediment accumulation rate in depth (sediment accumulation rate) and in mass (sediment flux) for different time periods. Because of compaction effect on sediment the sediment flux can well and truly reflect sedimentation rate. Based on the sediment flux and the area of lake bed measured by GIS, the annual gross accumulation of sediment can be calculated and internal load of pollutants in the lake sediment, lake evolution and environment changes of the lake basin can be studied further. Therefore, 137Cs dating has been extensively used for evaluation of sediment accumulation rate of lake, estuary, and ocean. However, there are still some problems under resolve. Firstly, how thickness of sampling should be divided up to meet both the needs of 137Cs dating precision and the propriety of measurement work. Secondly, attention should be paid to the lag time between 137Cs deposition in atmosphere and in sediment relates to the transport time from soil loss in field to lake. Thirdly, it should be also carefully taken into account whether diffusion and infiltration movement of 137Cs in sediment profiles occurred and what their mechanisms are.

Key words: 137Cs dating    Sediment accumulation rate    Lag time    Infiltration
收稿日期: 2004-09-14 出版日期: 2005-06-25
:  P512.32  
基金资助:

国家重点基础研究发展规划项目“河流入海物质通量变异及其对流域自然变化和人类活动的响应”(编号:2002CB412401);国家自然科学基金重点项目“长江三角洲水土资源环境与调控研究”(编号:49831070)资助.

通讯作者: 张燕   
作者简介: 张燕(1962-),女,江苏南京人,副教授,博士,主要从事资源与环境方面的研究. E-mail: zhangynju@yahoo.com.cn
服务  
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章  
潘少明
彭补拙
张燕

引用本文:

张燕;潘少明;彭补拙. 用137Cs计年法确定湖泊沉积物沉积速率研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2005, 20(6): 671-678.

ZHANG Yan;PAN Shaoming;PENG Buzhuo. AN OVERVIEW ON THE EVALUATION OF SEDIMENT ACCUMULATION RATE OF LAKE BY 137Cs DATING. Advances in Earth Science, 2005, 20(6): 671-678.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2005.06.0671        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2005/V20/I6/671

[1] Ravera O. Sediments [A]. In: Accumulation of Fission Products from Fall-out in Lake Biota (Lake Maggiore) [C]. Vienna: Int. Atomic Energy Agency, 1961.31-37.
[2] Nelson J L, Perkins R W, Neilsen J M,et al. Reaction of radionuclides from Hanford reactors with Columbia River sediments [A]. In: Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Seas, Oceans, and Surface waters [C]. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency, 1966.139-161.
[3] Schreiber B, Pelati L T, Mezzadri M G, et al. Gross beta radioactivity in sediments of the North Adriatic Sea: A possibility of evaluating the sedimentation rate[J]. Archives of Oceanography Limnology, 1968, 16:45-62.
[4] Pickering R J. Distribution of radionuclides in bottom sediment at th Clinch River, eastern Tennessee[A]. In: United States of America, Department of the Interior. Geological Survey: Professional Paper[C]. Washington DC,1969.433.
[5] Ravera O, Premazzi G. A method to study the history of any persistent pollution in a lake by the concentration of 137Cs from fall-out [A]. In: Radioecology Applied to the Protection of Man and His Environment[C]. EUR 4800,1971.703-719.
[6] Krishnaswami S, Lal D, Martin J M, et al.Geochronology of lake sediments[J]. Earth and Planearytary Science Letters, 1971,11:407-414.
[7] Pennington W, Cambray R S, Fisher E M. Observations on lake sediments using fallout 137Cs as a tracer[J]. Nature, 1973, 242:324-326.
[8] Ritchie J C, McHenry J R, Gill A C. Dating recent reservoir sediments[J]. Limnology and Oceanography, 1973,18:254-263.
[9] Ritchie J C, McHenry J R. Fallout Cs-137: A tool in conservation research[J]. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 1975,30:283-286.
[10] Ritchie J C, McHenry J R. Application of radioactive fallout cesium-137 for measuring soil erosion and sediment accumulation rates and patterns: A review[J]. Journal of Environmental Quality, 1990, 19:215-233.
[11] Ritchie J C, McHenry J R. A comparison of three methods for measuring recent rates of sediment accumulation[J].Water Resources Bulletin, 1985,21(1): 99-103.
[12] Walling D E, He Q. Use of fallout 137Cs in investigations of overbank sediment deposition on river floodplains[J]. Catena, 1997,29:263-282.
[13] Wang Yonghong, Shen Huanting. The study methods of sedimentation rates in the estuarine and coastal environments[J]. Marine Geology & Quaternary Geology, 2002,22(2):115-120.[王永红,沈焕庭.河口海岸环境沉积速率研究方法[J].海洋地质与第四纪地质, 2002,22(2):115-120.]
[14] Wan Guojiang, Santschi P, Farrenkothen K, et al. Distribution and dating of 137Cs for recent sediments in Lake Greifen (Switzerland)[J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae,1985,5(3):360-365.[万国江,Santschi P,Farrenkothen K,等.瑞士Greifen湖新近沉积物中的137Cs 分布及其计年[J].环境科学学报,1985,5(3):360-365.]
[15] Wan Guojiang, Santschi P H, Sturm M, et al. A comparative study on recent sedimentation rates of Lake Greifen, Switzerland using varve counting and radionuclide dating[J].Geochimica,1986,(3):259-270. [万国江, Santschi P H, Sturm M,等.放射性核素和纹理计年对比研究瑞士格莱芬湖近代沉积速率[J].地球化学,1986,(3):259-270.]
[16] Wan Guojiang, Santschi P H. Prediction of radionuclide inventory for sediment in Lake Greifen (Switzerland)[J].Scientia Geographica Sinica, 1987,7(4):358-363. [万国江, Santschi P H. 瑞士Greifen湖沉积物中放射性核素累计预测研究[J].地理科学, 1987,7(4):358-363.]
[17] Wan Guojiang, Lin Wenzhu, Huang Ronggui, et al. Sedimentation dating and erosion tracing of 137Cs for sediment in Hongfeng Lake[J]. Chinese Science Bulletin, 1990,35(19):1 487-1 490.[万国江,林文祝,黄荣贵,等.红枫湖沉积物137Cs 垂直剖面的计年特征及侵蚀示踪[J]. 科学通报, 1990,35(19):1 487-1 490.]
[18] Zhang Shurong, Xu Cuihua, Zhong Zhizhao, et al. Determination of sedimentation rate and dating of sediment in Erhai Lake with 210Pb and 137Cs dating methods[J]. Radiation Protection, 1993,13(6):453-457,465.[张淑蓉,徐翠华,钟志兆,等.用210Pb和137Cs法测定洱海沉积物的年代和沉积速率[J].辐射防护, 1993,13(6):453-457,465.]
[19] Wan Guojiang. 210Pb dating for recent sedimentation[J]. Quaternary Sciences,1997,17(3):230-239.[万国江.现代沉积的210Pb计年[J].第四纪研究, 1997,17(3):230-239.]
[20] Bai Zhanguo,Wan Xi, Wan Guojiang, et al. Geochemical speciation of  7Be、137Cs、226Ra and 228Ra in soils of the Karst region, Southwestern China and their erosion trace[J]. Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae,1997,17(4):407-411.[白占国, 万曦, 万国江,等.岩溶山区表土中7Be、137Cs、226Ra 和228Ra的地球化学相分配及其侵蚀示踪意义[J].环境科学学报,1997,17(4):407-411.]
[21] Xu Jingyi, Wan Guojiang, Wang Changsheng, et al. Vertical distribution of 210Pb and 137Cs and their dating in recent sediments of Lugu Lake and Erhai Lake, Yunnan Province[J].Journal of Lake Sciences, 1999,11(2):110-116.[徐经意,万国江,王长生,等.云南省泸沽湖、洱海现代沉积物中210Pb、137Cs的垂直分布及其计年[J].湖泊科学, 1999,11(2):110-116.]
[22] Pan Shaoming, Zhu Dakui, Li Yan, et al. Cs-137 Profile in Sediments in Estuaries and Its Application in Sedimentology[J]. Acta Sedimentologica Sinica, 1997,15(4):67-71.[ 潘少明,朱大奎,李炎,等.河口港湾沉积物中的137Cs剖面及其沉积学意义[J]. 沉积学报,1997,15(4):67-71.]
[23] McHenry J R, Ritchie J C, Gill A C. Accumulation of fallout cesium-137 in soils and sediments in selected watersheds[J]. Water Resources Research, 1973, 9(3):676-686.
[24] Kachanoski R G, Jong E de. Predicting the temporal relationship between soil caesium-137 and erosion rate[J]. Journal of Environmental Quality, 1984,13:301-304.
[25] Aarkrog A, Botter-Jensen, Jiang L, et al. Environmental radioactivity in Denmark in 1990 and 1991 [R]. Roskilde, Denmark: Riso National Laboratory,1992.
[26] Longmore M E, O'Leary B M, Rose C W, et al. Mapping soil erosion and accumulation with the fallout isotope caesium-137[J]. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 1983,21(4):373-385.
[27] Owens P N, Walling D E, He Q. The behaviour of bomb-derived caesium-137 fallout in catchment soils[J]. Journal of Environment Radioactivity,1996,32:167-191.
[28] Chamard P, Velasco R H, Belli M, et al. Caesium-137 and strontium-90 distribution in a soil profile[J]. Science of the Total Environment,1993,136:251-258.
[29] Wan Guojiang, Appleby P G. Progress on fallout radionuclides as tracers in environ-ecological systems[J]. Advances in Earth Science,2000,15(2):172-177.[万国江,Appleby P G.环境生态系统散落核素示踪研究新进展[J]. 地球科学进展,2000,15(2):172-177.]
[30] David N E, Klump J V, Robbins J A, et al. Sedimentation rates, residence times and radionuclide inventories in Lake Baikal from 137Cs and 210Pb in sediment cores[J]. Nature, 1991,350:601-604.
[31] Hirose K. Annual deposition of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-234,240 from the 1961-1980 unclear explosions: A simple modle[J]. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 1987, 65:259-277.
[32] Zhang Yan, Peng Buzhuo, Chen Jie, et al. Evaluating amount of sediment accumulation of Dianchi Lake using 137Cs dating[J]. Acta Geographica Sinica,2005,60(1):71-78. [张燕,彭补拙,陈捷,等.借助137Cs估算滇池沉积量[J]. 地理学报,2005,60(1):71-78.]
[33] Stiller M, Imboden D M. 210Pb in Lake Kinneret waters and sediments: Residence times and fluxes [A]. In: Sly PG ed. Sediment and Water Interactions[C]. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1986. 501-511.
[34] David R B,Hess C T, Norton S A, et al. Cs-137 and Pb-210 dating of sediments from soft-water lakes in New England (U. S. A.) Scandinavia, a failure of Cs-137 dating[J]. Chemical Geology,1984, 44:151-181.
[35] Simpson H J, Olsen C R, Trier R M, et al. Man-made radionuclide sedimentation in the Hudson River Estuary[J]. Science,1976,194(4 261):179-183.[36] He Q, Walling D E. Interpreting particle size effects in the adsorption of 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb by mineral soil-sand sediments[J]. Journal of Environment Radioactivity, 1996, 30:117-137.
[37] Dominik J, Mangini A, Muller G. Determination of recent deposition rates in Lake Constance with radioisotopic methods[J]. Sedimentology, 1981, 28:653-677.
[38] Bloesch J, Evans R D. Lead-210 dating of sediments compared with accumulation rate estimated by natural markers and measured with sediment traps[J]. Hydrobiologica, 1982,92:579-586.
[39] Xu Hongkun, Lin Changsong.A mothod for correcting compaction of sediment[J]. Earth Science Frontiers,2000,7(2):366. [许红昆, 林畅松. 沉积物压实的一种校正方法[J]. 地学前缘,2000,7(2):366.]
[40] Su Qiong, Song Haiqing.A mathematical model for correcting deep transfer of 137Cs in the watery recent sediment[J].Report on Technology of Chinese Nuclear,1995, (2):1-12. [苏琼, 宋海青.校正137Cs在水体沉积物中纵向迁移的数学模型[J]. 中国核科技报告,1995, (2):1-12.]
[41] Huang Naiming, Song Haiqing, Niu Guangqiu, et al. Variations of specific activity of γradiaonuclides in marine sediments with depth at GNPS site and evaluation of sedimentation velocity[J].Radiation Protection Bulletin,1999,19(2):9-12. [黄乃明,宋海青,牛广秋,等.大亚湾海底泥中放射性核素比活度随深度的变化及底泥沉积速率的估算[J]. 辐射防护通讯,1999,19(2):9-12.]
[42] Xu Yinliang, Chen Kaixuan, Chen Chuanqun, et al. Behavior of 137Cs in the water-adsorbent systems[J]. Acta Agriculturae Nucleatae Sinica, 2000,14(4):234-240.[徐寅良,陈凯旋,陈传群,等.137Cs 在水—吸附剂体系中的行为[J].核农学报,2000,14(4):234-240.]
[43] Davis R B, Hess C T, Norton S A, et al. 137Cs and 210Pb dating of sediments from soft-water lakes in New England (U.S.A.) and Scandinavia, a failure of 137Cs dating[J]. Chemical Geology, 1984, 44:151-181.
[44] Wan Guojiang. 137Cs Dating by annual distinguish for recent sedimentation: Samples from Erhai Lake and Hongfeng Lake[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 1999,19(1):73-80. [万国江.现代沉积年分辩的137Cs计年——以云南洱海和贵州红枫湖为例[J].第四纪研究,1999,19(1):73-80.]
[45] Tamura T. Selective sorption reaction of caesium with mineral soils[J]. Nuclear Safety, 1964,5:262-268.
[46] Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology,Chinese Academy of Sciences.Environments and Sedimentation of Fault Lakes, Yunnan Province[M]. Beijing: Science Press, 1989.291. [中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所.云南断陷湖泊环境与沉积[M]. 北京:科学出版社,1989.291.]
[47] Mclntyre S C. Reservoir sedimentation rates linked to long-term changes in agricultural land use[J]. Water Resources Bulletin, 1993, (29):487-495.

[1] 李向东,何幼斌,张铭记,刘训,姚建新. 宁夏中奥陶统香山群徐家圈组内波、内潮汐沉积类型[J]. 地球科学进展, 2011, 26(9): 1006-1014.
[2] 刘兴起;倪培. 表生环境条件形成的石盐流体包裹体研究进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2005, 20(8): 856-862.
[3] 李恒鹏,杨桂山. 海平面上升的海岸形态响应研究方法与进展[J]. 地球科学进展, 2000, 15(5): 598-603.