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地球科学进展, 2019, 34(1): 1-10 doi: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.01.0001

海岸风蚀地貌研究进展与展望

董玉祥,1,2, 张青年1, 黄德全1

1. 中山大学地理科学与规划学院/广东省城市化与地理环境空间模拟重点实验室,广东 广州 510275

2. 中山大学新华学院,广东 广州 510520

Progress and Prospect of Research on Coastal Wind-eroded Landform

Dong Yuxiang,1,2, Zhang Qingnian1, Huang Dequan1

1. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Geo-simulation, School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China

2. Xinhua College of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510520, China

收稿日期: 2018-10-26   修回日期: 2018-11-28   网络出版日期: 2019-02-26

基金资助: 国家自然科学基金项目“中国海岸风蚀地貌的发育与演变”.  编号:41871006

Received: 2018-10-26   Revised: 2018-11-28   Online: 2019-02-26

作者简介 About authors

董玉祥(1964-),男,河南西平人,教授,主要从事海岸风沙地貌和土地退化研究.E-mail:eesdyx@mail.sysu.edu.cn , E-mail:eesdyx@mail.sysu.edu.cn

摘要

分布广泛、成因复杂的风蚀地貌随着研究技术与手段的提高近期取得了显著进展,作为其重要类型之一的海岸风蚀地貌也日益受到关注。基于对国外不同时期海岸风蚀地貌研究的主要成果、国内海岸风蚀地貌研究现状及争议、国内海岸与内陆风蚀地貌研究进展等方面的概括总结,提出开展我国海岸风蚀地貌研究十分必要,近期可通过查明海岸风蚀地貌的类型与分布、明确不同海岸风蚀地貌的形态及变化特征、探讨典型海岸风蚀地貌形态变化与气流相互作用机理等开展我国海岸风蚀地貌发育过程与演变模式的研究。

关键词: 海岸 ; 风沙地貌 ; 风蚀地貌

Abstract

The coastal wind-eroded landform, one of the kinds of wind-eroded landforms which widely distribute and have complex causes of formation, now is being much more concerned in recent years with the major research development of wind-eroded landform based on the advanced research techniques and methods. According to the summarization about the main progresses of foreign research on coastal wind-eroded landform in different periods, the status and dispute of research on coastal wind-eroded landform in China, and the development difference of coastal and mainland wind-eroded landform in China, it is essential work to improve the research on the coastal wind-eroded landform in China. Finally future research directions of coastal wind-eroded landforms are suggested such as to find out the types and their distribution features of coastal wind-eroded landforms in China, investigate their morphology and change characteristics,probe into the interaction essence between the morphological changes and the airflow and wind-sand flux of typical coastal wind-eroded landforms, and explore the model and laws of formation and evolution of coastal wind-eroded landforms in China.

Keywords: Coast ; Aeolian landform ; Wind-eroded landform.

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本文引用格式

董玉祥, 张青年, 黄德全. 海岸风蚀地貌研究进展与展望. 地球科学进展[J], 2019, 34(1): 1-10 doi:10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.01.0001

Dong Yuxiang, Zhang Qingnian, Huang Dequan. Progress and Prospect of Research on Coastal Wind-eroded Landform. Advances in Earth Science[J], 2019, 34(1): 1-10 doi:10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2019.01.0001

风与风沙流对地表物质的吹蚀、搬运和堆积过程中所形成的风沙地貌不仅广泛分布于干旱半干旱地区和大陆冰缘区,也可出现在湿润地区的沙质海岸、湖岸和河岸[1],由于湿润海岸与干旱内陆自然条件迥异,其风沙地貌发育与演化规律存在明显差异,故海岸风沙地貌研究一直是国际风沙地貌研究的一个重要分支,其中海岸风蚀地貌研究因其复杂性等也备受关注。相比而言,国内海岸风沙地貌研究与内陆风沙地貌研究相比明显偏弱,海岸风蚀地貌研究更为鲜见,为此针对国内海岸风蚀地貌研究的现状及其问题,比较国内海岸风蚀地貌研究与内陆风蚀地貌的主要差距,参照国际海岸风蚀地貌研究近期的主要进展,提出近期我国开展海岸风蚀地貌研究的主要方向,以完善我国海岸风沙地貌的内容体系,提高我国海岸风沙地貌研究的整体水平。

1 国外海岸风蚀地貌研究进展

国外海岸风沙地貌研究历史久、发展快[2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11],其中尤其重视对海岸风蚀地貌的研究并成为新近研究重点之一。

国际海岸风沙地貌研究,长期以来在主要研究风积地貌的形态、沉积物和演化过程等的同时,对海岸风蚀地貌研究也给与了充分关注,在进行海岸风沙地貌类型划分时往往明确海岸风蚀地貌类型。例如,Quigley[12]以海岸风沙沉积状态为基础,将海岸风沙地貌划分为正沉积状态的沉积类型(包括雏形沙丘、前丘与稳定沙丘3个亚类)和负沉积状态的侵蚀类型(包括干风蚀凹地、湿风蚀凹地、沙席、风蚀坑、蚀余丘、爬升沙丘和覆沙地7个亚类),Olson等[13]从风沙地貌形态角度给出了包括风蚀坑、蚀余沙丘等风蚀类型共4级的复杂海岸风沙地貌类型划分系统,并将海岸风蚀地貌类型在宏观、中观和微观不同尺度的海岸风沙地貌形成与发展模式中给与了充分体现[14,15,16]

综观国外海岸风蚀地貌的研究,除对英国、美国、西班牙、韩国和加拿大等海岸风棱石的基本特点、影响因素和形成时代的研究外[17,18,19,20,21,22,23],大多数集中于海岸风蚀坑,主要对海岸风蚀坑的基本形态、发育条件、动力机制和演化过程等进行了较为深入的研究[24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31],取得了明显的进展,其中主要结论有:明确了海岸风蚀坑的基本形态特点是其由一个沉积物搬运占主导的侵蚀通道、紧邻侵蚀通道的风蚀侧壁和下风向风蚀坑缘构成[4];提出海岸风蚀坑的发育与高速、高频风有着极为重要的关系,虽然强烈向岸风往往对风蚀坑的形成有重要作用,但离岸风也能形成风蚀坑[27];风沙运动观测结果,最大输沙率出现在风蚀坑入口和风蚀坑后缘[26,30],风蚀坑内输沙率的变化与其气流速度分布较为一致,其中与8.75~10.0 m/s风速的相关性最好[28];海岸风蚀坑的演化过程大致可以划分为形成风蚀槽、风蚀槽发展为初期风蚀坑、风蚀坑内侵蚀通道不断侵蚀至海岸后岸高度且侧壁侵蚀风蚀坑不断拓宽、侵蚀停止开始堆积以至消亡4个阶段,整个过程一般需约20年,其在前述4个发展阶段中的时间分配分别为1年、2~5年、5~10年和10~20年[29]

进入新世纪后,随着研究技术与手段的提升,海岸风蚀地貌研究由之前以基本形态与变化过程研究为主,发展为形态动力学及其数值模拟研究为主的新阶段,更多基于现代技术与设备所获取的高精度、高分辨率、长时序的观测与实验数据,探讨海岸风蚀坑形态变化的动力学机制及其数值模拟问题[32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42]

2 国内海岸风蚀地貌研究现状

相比国外海岸风沙地貌研究的发展态势,国内海岸风沙地貌研究略显滞后[8,9,10,43,44]。总体而言,我国海岸风沙地貌研究肇始于20世纪80年代[43,44],其发展过程大致可概括为3个阶段:21世纪初之前的第一个阶段,集中进行了我国主要海岸沙丘类型及其发育模式的研究[45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64],在海岸沙丘的类型、分布、成因、发育模式、风沙沉积特征及其演化过程方面取得了较大进展;之后近10年中的第二阶段,为进一步明晰海岸沙丘发育的动力学过程,主要集中于海岸风沙运动过程的研究,包括典型海岸沙丘表面的风气流场、风流结构及海岸沙丘移动与形态变化等的野外调查与观测[65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75],并开展了华南热带湿润海滩风蚀模数的风洞实验研究等[76]近数年来的第三个阶段,胡凡根等[77]、靳建辉等[78,79]和姜锋等[80]更进一步探讨海岸风沙沉积环境演化过程,主要从海岸风沙地貌形成于海、陆、气交互作用的动力环境这一根本特征出发,力图突破之前基本按照内陆风沙地貌范式研究海岸风沙地貌的状况,将其与大气、波浪、海滩联系起来进行综合研究[10,11],开展了华南海岸风沙地貌台风响应模式的研究,就典型区域不同类型沙丘形态对台风的响应、不同类型沙丘表层沉积物对台风的响应、不同海岸沙丘对台风响应的差异性以及响应机理等进行了研究与分析[81,82,83,84,85,86]

我国海岸风沙地貌研究的上述发展过程中,基本上集中于以海岸沙丘为主的风积地貌,海岸风蚀地貌研究近乎缺失,对海岸风蚀地貌虽有涉及,但仅零星散见于个别文献中。例如,李从先等[87]基于分布位置及其风成沉积物的地域相关性指出,福建海岸部分所谓的“海蚀窗”以及蜂窝状的“海蚀”现象等,应更可能与风蚀有关;吴正等[88]在广东惠来靖海资深园发现风蚀形态典型的伏舟状雅丹地貌;董玉祥[64]在我国海岸风沙地貌分类中划分有风蚀残丘和风蚀凹槽等海岸风蚀地貌类型;石谦等[89]也指出,在福建平潭岛田美沃岬角裸露花岗岩表面的风蚀刻痕等风成微地貌应是风沙长期刻蚀和磨擦岩面的必然产物。其中最具针对性的海岸风蚀地貌研究,仅见于刘建辉等[90]对福建长乐东部海岸风蚀坑的初步研究,论述了海岸风蚀坑的形态特征、风蚀坑内风速与风向变化、风蚀坑的风沙搬运与沉积过程,并对其成因和演化阶段进行了讨论。

同时,国内海岸风蚀地貌研究还存有较大争议,因风蚀地貌虽然主要是以风和风沙的吹蚀和磨蚀作用为主因,但同时也受暂时性流水作用、风化作用、盐化作用等因素的影响[1,91],确定其成因有一定难度,故对海岸风蚀地貌的形成,尤其是在有关海岸岩石穴状地貌(岩穴)成因分析中存在一定的争议。一些学者认识到风蚀作用的重要性[92],基于其分布特征尤其是与海岸沙丘分布的关联性提出存在风蚀穴(石窝、风蚀壁龛)等海岸风蚀地貌[87,89],同时也有学者对马海岸形态类似的地貌从海蚀[93]、风化[94,95,96]等角度进行解析,看法不尽一致。近期,吴忱等[97]在对形成在岩石表面上或岩体中的各种穴状体(统称为岩穴)的研究中,就将岩穴划分为河蚀穴、溶蚀穴、溶蚀—河蚀穴、海蚀穴、湖蚀穴、雪蚀穴、风蚀穴和风化—风蚀穴等,指出岩穴可以发育在多种岩石上,具有多种形态和成因,形成于多个时期,其分布受地理环境影响并受地貌面的控制。因此,如何科学辨识海岸风蚀穴状地貌是当前海岸风蚀地貌研究中的一个关键问题。

3 国内内陆风蚀地貌近期进展

我国风蚀地貌就其规模、类型等而言,主体分布于内陆干旱半干旱地区[1,91],内陆风蚀地貌的研究是同一区域内海岸风蚀地貌研究的重要参照,但近期我国内陆风蚀地貌研究的快速发展与上述海岸风蚀地貌研究的严重不足形成鲜明对照。20世纪80年代后,随着遥感、地面测量及模拟实验等现代技术手段的提高,我国内陆风蚀地貌研究水平得到快速提升,成为近期我国内陆风沙地貌研究的一个重要发展方向,其研究成果可以为国内开展海岸风蚀地貌研究提供重要的借鉴和参考。

早期主要是1981年朱震达等[98]首先在我国风沙地貌研究的经典著作《塔克拉玛干沙漠风沙地貌研究》中对塔克拉玛干沙漠的风沙地貌的形成发育、形态特征、移动规律及其区划等进行了科学总结,其中对以雅丹地貌为主的风蚀地貌,包括雅丹地貌、风蚀方山以及由风蚀槽、风蚀穴等构成的风蚀凹地等进行了分析,之后以雅丹地貌为主的风蚀地貌研究逐渐增多[99,100,101,102]

2000年以来,实时动态载波相位差分GPS、三维激光扫描仪和超声风速仪等新型观测与实验仪器设备的广泛应用,使得高时空分辨率的形态监测和风沙动力观测成为可能,结合风洞模拟实验和计算机数值模拟,我国内陆风蚀地貌的研究进入一个新的快速发展时段[103,104,105,106,107],在对风蚀机理等相关问题进行研究的同时[91,108,109,110,111,112],重点对我国内陆干旱半干旱地区的雅丹地貌和风蚀坑进行了较为深入的研究,其中最具代表性的是对我国罗布泊、敦煌、库姆塔格和柴达木盆地等地区雅丹地貌的类型划分、空间分布、形态特征、发育条件、演化过程、形成年代及其与环境的关系等进行了系统研究[113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122],对呼伦贝尔沙质草原风蚀坑的形态与分类、形成因素、动力过程、发育模式、表层粒度与植被分异及影响因素等进行了较为全面的观测分析[123,124,125,126,127,128,129,130,131,132,133,134],同期还有对内陆鄱阳湖湖滨风蚀地貌的研究[135,136]。不过,研究中对部分地区风蚀穴的判别及成因存在较大争议[96,97]

4 我国海岸风蚀地貌研究展望

我国海岸线全长近1.8×104 km,全国海岸风沙地面积约3.0×105 hm2,海岸风沙地貌在我国海岸呈带状断续分布,具有分布广、规模较小、分布零散、区域差异大等特点[58,64],就其类型而言,无论形态规模还是分布面积,以雏形前丘、新月形前丘、横向前丘脊、草灌丛沙丘、抛物线沙丘、沙脊、新月形沙丘、纵向沙垄、爬坡沙丘和海岸沙席等风积地貌类型为主,但多地存在有风蚀穴、风蚀坑、风蚀残丘(墩)等海岸风蚀地貌也是不争的客观事实[58,64,87,88,89,90,91]。但是,国内对海岸风蚀地貌研究程度相对较低,甚至近属空白,同时对海岸风蚀穴的认识还存在较大争议,即使已有对海岸风蚀坑的初步研究,但还有待于大量的实地观测、监测进行更进一步研究,海岸风蚀地貌研究实属我国海岸风沙地貌学亟待填补的薄弱环节。因此,十分有必要立足于前述国际研究现状和学科发展前沿,借助我国内陆风蚀地貌的快速发展,针对我国海岸风蚀地貌研究之不足,及时开展我国海岸风蚀地貌发育与演变的研究,从海岸风蚀地貌的形态动力学的调查、观测、实验与分析入手,通过全面踏勘、典型调查、遥感监测、实地测量、风沙观测、室内实验、数据分析与数值模拟等,查明我国海岸风蚀地貌的类型与分布,明确不同海岸风蚀地貌的形态特征,揭示其发育过程与演变模式,解决争议问题,是认识我国海岸风沙地貌形成发育规律之急需,对丰富和完善我国海岸风沙地貌研究的内容、理论与方法,提高我国海岸风沙地貌研究的总体水平将产生重要作用。同时,随着我国社会经济的迅速发展,沿海地带正遭受各类开发活动的严重冲击,海岸风沙地貌景观也是宝贵的“绿水青山”,科学合理地保护、管理和利用海岸风沙地貌资源与景观也正成为一项日益艰巨的任务,亦十分需要通过海岸风蚀地貌发育与演变的研究,为海岸风蚀地貌分布地区的海岸开发、利用与保护提供必要的科学依据。由此,未来一定时期,我国海岸风蚀地貌主要开展以下几个方面的研究:

(1)海岸风蚀地貌的基本类型及分布格局。基于对我国海岸风沙地貌主要分布区的全面踏勘、典型调查和形态测量等,明确不同类型海岸风蚀地貌的形态指征,科学划分我国海岸风蚀地貌的基本类型及其亚级分类,并结合现代测量与遥感技术和空间分析手段,阐明我国各类海岸风蚀地貌的宏观分布特征并辨识其与区域地质、地貌、气候和植被等自然因素间的关系。

(2)海岸风蚀地貌主要类型的形态及变化特征。主要选取海岸风蚀穴(石窝或风蚀壁龛)、风蚀坑与风蚀残墩(丘)等海岸风蚀地貌类型,依照前述划分的亚级类型选择典型分布地点,通过重复地测量、观测和数据处理计算,定量分析其二维、三维形态的年、季变化,并依据其形态变化与相应要素(地形、气候、植被、海浪等)之间的关系确定其不同时空尺度上形态变化的控制因素。其中,海岸风蚀穴(石窝或风蚀壁龛)的判定标准及其分类指征是需要解决的关键问题。

(3)海岸风蚀地貌主要类型的发育过程与演变模式。在对选取的主要风蚀地貌类型进行形态的典型调查和定位观测时,应同步开展风沙观测,对近地层气流、风沙流、侵蚀堆积以及局地风况、植被等同时进行定位观测,并开展必要的风洞模拟实验,基于实际观测和风洞实验数据等进行数据分析与模拟,探讨其形态变化与气流相互作用的形态动力学特征,揭示我国主要海岸风蚀地貌类型的发育过程与演变模式。其中,典型海岸风蚀地貌形态不同时空尺度变化主控因素的辨识将是需要解决的关键问题。

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