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地球科学进展  2018, Vol. 33 Issue (9): 885-897    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.09.0885
综述与评述     
全月球形貌类型分类方法初探
程维明1,2(), 刘樯漪1,2, 王娇3, 高文信1,4, 刘建忠5
1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所 资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室,北京 100101
2. 中国科学院大学,北京 100049
3.中国地质大学信息工程学院,北京 100083
4.兰州理工大学土木工程学院,甘肃 兰州 730050
5.中国科学院地球化学研究所,贵州 贵阳 550081
A Preliminary Study of Classification Method on Lunar Topography and Landforms
Weiming Cheng1,2(), Qiangyi Liu1,2, Jiao Wang3, Wenxin Gao1,4, Jianzhong Liu5
1.State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3.School of Information Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China
4.School of Civil Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology,Lanzhou 730050, China
5.Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550081, China
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摘要:

月球表面形貌科学研究是月球探测最基础的内容。月球形貌类型单元的划分、月貌图的编研是绕月探测工程遴选的4项科学目标之一。首先回顾了不同研究者提出的月球表面形貌类型,论述了月球形貌类型的划分方法及进展,分析了20世纪70年代美国地质调查局编制全月球1∶ 500万地质图以及中国新一代1∶ 250万地质图的形态及年代的类型划分依据等。考虑到月球表面形貌的现状特征、受宏观营力格局及作用方式、形态变异及组合特征等,提出了基于形态和年代两大类特征相结合全月球形貌类型的矩阵式多级分类方法。年代可分为哥白尼纪、爱拉托逊纪、雨海纪、前雨海纪以及两者之间的过渡年代等七大类。全月球形貌类型中,按照宏观形态及营力作用方式,将第一级划分为月海、盆地、月陆和撞击坑四大类。第二级中,按照大类的形态差异性,可将盆地分为盆底平原和环盆地山丘;月海分为月海平原和月海穹丘;月陆分为月陆平原、月陆丘陵和月陆高原;撞击坑按照形态和规模分为特大型撞击坑环形山、特大型撞击平原、次级形成小撞击坑、撞击坑链、带辐射纹撞击坑、不规则和边缘模糊坑、未分形态撞击坑等类型。根据坡面和物质差异,可细化出三级甚至四级形态类型。以H010幅为案例,对2种指标和组合形貌类型进行了制图试验。这将对全月球形貌类型的划分和制图具有一定的指导作用。

关键词: 月球形貌形貌特征地质年代地貌分类分类方法    
Abstract:

Lunar topography and landform, resulting from endogenous and exogenous geophysical processes of various spatial and temporal scales, carry information of these processes and target properties. Geoscientists use morphometric analysis at different scales to study lunar topography, which is one of the four scientific objectives of China's lunar exploration project. This article first reviewed the lunar topographic types from different researchers, analyzed classifying method and progress, discussed geological mapping method of 1∶ 5 000 000 complied by United States Geological Survey in the 1970s. In consideration of the present situation of the lunar surface morphological characteristics, the pattern of macroscopic forcing, morphologic variation and combination characteristics and function way, etc., a matrix combining multi-stage classification method was put forward based on the characteristics of the topography and geologic age, which included 7 geologic ages and 14 morphologic classes. Geological ages can be divided into Copernican System (C), Copernican-Eartosthenian System (CE), Eartosthenian System (E), Eartosthenian-Imbrian System (EI), Imbrian System (I), Imbrian-PreImbrian System (IpI) and Pre-Imbrian System (pI). As to topographic types, the first class can be divided into lunar mare, lunar basin, lunar terra and lunar crater. As to their second class according to morphological differences, the lunar basin can be divided into basin plain and circum-basin, and lunar mare can be divided into mare plain and mare dome; lunar terra can be divided into terra plain, plateau and hill, and craters can be divided into main sequence crater, crater plain, secondary crater, crater chains and clusters, rayed craters, irregular crater and undivided crater. Thus, 46 subclasses including geologic and morphologic features were obtained in this classification system. The test mapping method was addressed in Sheet H010, which shows the combination classification method is reasonable.

Key words: Lunar topography    Morphological features    Geologic ages    Geomorphologic classification    Classification approach.
收稿日期: 2017-04-18 出版日期: 2018-10-23
ZTFLH:  P184.8  
基金资助: *国家自然科学基金项目“全月球形貌类型划分方法研究”(编号:41571388);中国科学院B类先导专项培育项目“数字月球与地月系统演化”(编号:XDPB11)资助.
作者简介: 作者简介:程维明(1973-),男,甘肃天水人,研究员,主要从事数字地貌及月球形貌研究.E-mail:chengwm@lreis.ac.cn
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引用本文:

程维明, 刘樯漪, 王娇, 高文信, 刘建忠. 全月球形貌类型分类方法初探[J]. 地球科学进展, 2018, 33(9): 885-897.

Weiming Cheng, Qiangyi Liu, Jiao Wang, Wenxin Gao, Jianzhong Liu. A Preliminary Study of Classification Method on Lunar Topography and Landforms. Advances in Earth Science, 2018, 33(9): 885-897.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2018.09.0885        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V33/I9/885

时间 研究者 分类依据 月貌类型
1645年 Michael Florent van Langren[20,21,22,23] 高低特征 月海、陨石坑及山峰和山脉
1651年 Giambattista Riccioli[20,21,22,23] 水的特征 月洋、月湖、月沼和月湾
1978年 美国宇航局[20,21,22,23] 形态特征 月海、月陆和撞击坑
1982年 Andersson和Whitaker[20,21,22,23] 撞击坑 撞击坑、非撞击坑和其他地貌特征
1984年 IAU[24] 形态特征 撞击坑、月海、月陆、月洋、月湖、月沼、月湾、
月岬、山地、穹丘、皱脊、月谷、陡坡和月溪等
2011年
2016年
周增坡等[25]
程维明等[2]
形态特征 月海、月陆、台地、丘陵、山地、撞击坑平原、环
形山、撞击坑链、月溪或月谷和月岭等
表1  不同时期研究者提出的月球表面形貌类型对比
物质类型 暗物质 盆地物质 月陆物质 撞击坑物质 年代
地貌类型 月海平原、
月海丘陵、
月海穹丘等
盆底平原、环
盆地山丘等
月陆平原、月陆
高原、月陆丘陵、
月陆山脉等
主撞击坑、撞击坑
链、不规则撞击坑、
未分撞击坑等
哥白尼纪、爱拉拖逊
纪、雨海纪、前雨海纪
(含酒海纪和前酒海纪)
表2  美国月球地质图中涵盖的月球形貌类型特征[27,28,29,30,31,32]
图1  基于形态特征和地质年代的月球形貌类型分类体系
一级形态类型 月海 盆地 月陆 撞击坑 地质年代
二级形态类型 月海
平原
(M)
月海
穹丘
(MD)
盆底
平原
(B)
环盆地
山丘
(CB)
月陆
平原
(P)
月陆
高原
(TP)
月陆
丘陵
(TPL)
主撞
击坑
(MC)
撞击坑
平原
(CP)
次级
撞击坑
(SC)
撞击
坑链
(CC)
辐射纹
撞击坑
(RC)
不规则
撞击坑
(IC)
未分
撞击坑
(UC)
形态—年代
月球形貌类型
C_TPL C_MC C_CP C_SC C_CC C_RC 哥白尼纪(C)
CE_MD CE_TD CE_CC CE_IC 哥白尼—爱拉托逊纪(CE)
E_M E_MD E_MC E_SC E_CC 爱拉托逊纪(E)
EI_M EI_MD 爱拉托逊—雨海纪(EI)
I_M I_MD I_B I_CB I_TP I_TPL I_TD I_MC I_CP I_SC I_CC I_IC I_UC 雨海纪(I)
IpI_CB IpI_TP IpI_TPL IpI_TD IpI_CP IpI_IC 雨海—前雨海纪(IpI)
pI_B pI_CB pI_TP pI_TPL pI_MC pI_CP pI_SC pI_CC pI_IC pI_UC 前雨海纪(pI)
表3  基于形态特征和地质年代的月球形貌类型的矩阵式组合分类体系
图2  基于形态类型和地质年代组合而成的H010幅形貌类型制图 (a)一级形态;(b)二级形态;(c)年代;(d)形貌组合类型
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