冯佳睿, 高志勇, 崔京钢, 周川闽. 深层、超深层碎屑岩储层勘探现状与研究进展. 2016, 31(7): 718-736 Feng Jiarui, Gao Zhiyong, Cui Jinggang, Zhou Chuanmin. The Exploration Status and Research Advances of Deep and Ultra-Deep Clastic Reservoirs. Advances in Earth Science, 2016, 31(7): 718-736
The Exploration Status and Research Advances of Deep and Ultra-Deep Clastic Reservoirs
Feng Jiarui, Gao Zhiyong, Cui Jinggang, Zhou Chuanmin
Petroleum Geology Research and Laboratory Center,Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration & Evelopment, Beijing 100083, China
Fund:Foundation item:Projet supported by the National Science and Technology Major Prject of the Minstry of Science and Technology of China “The geological evolution process, deep structure and reservoir characteristics in foreland thrust belt and complex structural area”(No.2016ZX05003-001)
In recent years, with increasing demand for oil and gas, and advances in exploration methods, deep and ultra-deep (5 000~8 000 m) clastic reservoirs have become a new domain for oil and gas exploration. Research on deep and ultra-deep clastic reservoirs began in the 1970s and has achieved a series of major findings. Under the typical tectonic setting and sedimentary environment of basins in China, deep and ultra-deep clastic reservoirs, having experienced long-term burial, compaction, and dissolution, generally possess good physical properties and have become effective reservoirs. Therefore, the main controlling factors on the formation of such reservoirs have become the focus of research on deep and ultra-deep clastic rocks. Previous studies in this field have made the following findings. ①Dissolution is a general mechanism for the formation of effective deep and ultra-deep clastic reservoirs. Specifically, the organic and inorganic acids generated by organic matter maturation act to dissolve soluble carbonate cement components such as feldspar and lithic fragments, forming secondary pores. ②The lower the geothermal gradient and weaker the intensity of diagenesis, the slower the decrease in sandstone porosity. Thus, the process of long-term early stage shallow burial and rapid late-stage deep burial is conducive to the preservation of primary porosity. ③Anomalous pressure can delay the compaction of rock, inhibiting the expulsion of organic acids that are favorable for the generation of secondary pores in deep and ultra-deep reservoirs. ④Gypsum layers can slow the process of diagenesis, forming dual sealing by physical properties and pressure. This is conducive to the preservation of porosity in sandstone located below the gypsum layer. ⑤Clay film ( e.g., chlorite film) also plays an important role in preserving the porosity of deep and ultra-deep clastic reservoirs. ⑥The formation of effective reservoirs also can also be influenced by the factors of diagenetic compaction, early hydrocarbon filling and clastic particles composition. Geologic research on deep and ultra-deep reservoirs should focus on reservoirs on land as this will strengthen our understanding of offshore reservoirs, especially in deep waters. Moreover, further innovation in theory and technology of oil and gas exploration are required.
Deep reservoir; Ultra-deep reservoir; Clastic rock; Dissolution; Burial mode.
图4 准噶尔盆地南缘地区2种埋藏曲线图 (a)地层埋藏过程为早期缓慢浅埋、晚期快速深埋; (b)地层埋藏过程为持续沉降埋藏Fig.4 Two burial cruves in the southern margin of Junggar Basin (a)Shallow burial at early stage, rapid deep burial at later stage; (b)Continued burial
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Volcanic hydrocarbon exploration in China experienced three phases, accidental discovery, local prospecting and all-round exploration. There are mainly Carboniferous-Permian, Jurassic-Cretaceous, Paleogene-Neogene volcanic rocks and lava, pyroclastics, karst reservoirs in oil- and gas-bearing basins in China. Volcanic rocks can not generate organic hydrocarbons, and the combination of volcanic rocks, source rocks and seals is the key controlling factor of the primary lava plays. The near-source play is most favorable for hydrocarbon accumulation. Distribution of oil and gas is controlled predominantly by the hydrocarbon-generating center. The distal play requires communication with faults or unconformities. Near-source plays are in the faulted basins in eastern China. Structural-lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs are formed in the higher place of faults and lithologic hydrocarbon reservoirs are formed in the slope. Two types of plays are developed in central and western China. The near-source play is most favorable for the formation of large stratigraphic hydrocarbon reservoirs.
Songliao basin is a high geotemperature field,the violent cementation in the deep strata made the primary pores decrease quickly,and only the secondary pores can make clastic rock have storage capacity.As the most important authi-genic mineral in the deep strata of Songliao basin,Laumontite was distributed widely and regenerated by later diageneses, so thathigh-yield gas reservoir of the secondary pores were formed.In the paper,by applying for polarization micro-scope,X-ray diffraction analysis,infrared spectroscopy method and temperature heating measurements,the content and mineral characteristic of laumontite in the clastic rock of Songliao basin are determined,its formation process is discussed 1By applying the scanning electron microscope and image analysis,the dissolution porosity in the laumontite and the relationship with organic acid are thoroughly studied.Furthermore,the distribution of laumontite dissolution porosity are pointed out that in vertical laumontite dissolution porosity alternated from fairly well developed to undeveloped.The thickness of dissolution porosity strata was about 2-3 meters.In horizontal laumontite dissolution porosity is quite well developed in Shengping-Wangjiatun and Changde area.The period of the secondary pore formation closely matched that of natural gas migration.The sandstone cemented by laumontite has dualism:cover earlier and storage later.There is a probability that the secondary pore zone is a high-yield hydrocarbon reservoir.
Along with the widely used experimental testing technology within 40 years, a number of significant knowledge and results have been achieved in diagenesis of clastic reservoirs an important branch of sedimentology and basin research, which has promoted the exploration and development of hydrocarbonbearing basins. This article encompasses the knowledge system to start an overview of the concept and research history of diagenesis, and to collate some representative classification viewpoints of clastic diagenetic stage. Several advances in recent theoretical and applied aspects of diagenesis, which have enriched the systems and technology series, have been introduced and summarized, including: ① improvement of alkaline diagenesis theory; ② increasingly widespread application in numerical simulation of clastic diagenesis; ③ rapid development of diagenesis within the framework of sequence stratigraphy or depositional facies; ④ preliminary investigation of structural diagenesis; ⑤ in-depth quantitative evaluation of diagenetic facies. Additionally, the research trends of the discipline system of diagenesis should be closely combined and discussed with diagenesis of tight sandstone reservoirs, diagenesis and its temporal properties of hierarchical systems, quantitative research of diagenesis, and integration of diagenesis and other fields. Frontier research and development directions have been prospected in order to bring forward further development of diagenesis, which is benefit for the forecasting and evaluation of the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrocarbonbearing clastic reservoirs.
Based on comprehensive knowledge of deep reservoirs all over the world and petroleum geological features of superimposed basins in western China，this paper recognizes three key challenges of petroleum exploration in the deep of superimposed basins in western China.The first challenge is thathydrocarbons generated inmulti-phasesm ix together and their origins are not clear，making ithard to select leads.The second challenge is that fractures and dissolved pores/cavities m ix together in reservoirs and their origins are unclear，making ithard to predict favorable plays.The third challenge is thatphases ofhydrocarbon vary greatly and the distribution of hydrocarbon is influenced by high pressure and temperature，low porosity and permeability and several driving forces ofm igration，making it difficult to predict exploration targets using existing pool-form ing theories.Therefore，to accelerate hydrocarbon exploration in the deep of superimposed basins in western China，we have to find answers to three key issues:（i）multistage tectonic overprinting and deep hydrocarbon generation and evolution;（ii）developmentmechanism and pattern of deep effective reservoirs;（iii）composite pool-form ingmechanism and accumulation pattern ofhydrocarbons in deep strata.It is suggested to adopt a research method that integrates forward modeling with inversion analysis of hydrocarbon accumulation process and a technical route of“geological condition-mechanism pattern of hydrocarbon accumulation”.Tarim Basin and Junggar Basin can be choosen as the focus of study as they have the greatest deep petroleum resource potential.It is expected to develop theories on composite hydrocarbon accumulation in the deep of superimposed basins in western China and supporting techniques to predicthydrocarbon distribution.These new theorieswill promote hydrocarbon exploration and fast reserve growth in the deep ofwestern China basins. Keywords:hydrocarbon distribution pattern，hydrocarbon accumulation，deep hydrocarbon exploration，superimposed basin in China
It is more and more difficult to make important breakthrough on oil and gas exploration at present mainly research depth. So a very important tendency in recent years is to find oil and gas at deeper than present research strata. The extensive discovered deep oil and gas reservoirs that seated deeper than hydrocarbon stability temperature and stability depth lines have cause strong challenge to traditional oil and gas generating theory. Some new phenomena that occurred at deep oil and gas exploration are difficult to be explained by tradition oil and gas generating theory. This paper make a brief summary on research status and advances in deep oil and gas exploration. The discussions are based on from the point of temperature, occurrence and distribution, material base, stability and reservoir of deep oil and gas and states that deeper strata of the basins still have the ability to form commercial oil and gas reservoirs. The results of theory studying and practical exploration show that the source rocks are still have the commercial oil and gas generation potential at relative higher thermal revolution stages. The fractures and micro-fracture swarms at deeper strata are connected and they could be as the migration pathways and reservoir for deep oil and gas accumulation. It is possible to form the great hydrocarbon mineral resources at deeper basin strata.
Recent analysis of marine carbonate oil and gas fields in Tarim Basin,Sichuan Basin and Erdos Basin reveals that carbonate traps and reservoirs in China can be classified into 4 major categories (i.e.structural traps,lithologic traps,stratigraphic traps and hybrid traps) and 21 types.The paper focuses on only stratigraphic and lithologic traps as they are more common trap types in the country.The lithologic traps can be further classified into bioherm traps,grain bank traps and diagenetic traps.The stratigraphic traps can also be classified into fault-block buried hill traps,peneplain erosion paeleogeomorphologic traps,monadnock buried hill fracture-vuggy traps,quasi-bedded fracture-vuggy traps,stratigraphic wedge traps and stratigraphic onlap pinchout traps.The paper points out that the marine carbonate oil and gas fields on China mainland are mainly of stratigraphic and lithologic reservoirs with moderate to low abundance.The bioherm reservoirs and grain bank reservoirs develop and distribute in a bead-like shape along platform margin,while the peneplain erosion palaeogeomorphologic reservoirs present as the shape of crumbs;the fractured-vuggy reservoirs are distri-buted widely in the quasi0bedded shape.The large ancient uplift,slope zone and platform margin,are considered favorable areas for cluster distribution of lithologic and stratigraphic oil and gas reservoirs and therefore are regarded to have great potential for hydrocarbon exploration.
It is well known that there were rich gas resources in Kuqa Depression.Since the discovery of Kela-2 large gas field,Dabei gas field and Keshen gas field have been discovered in the down block of Kelasu fault in Keshen structural zone.Taking Keshen and Dabei gas fields as an example,formation mechanism and enrichment regularities of Kelasu subsalt deep large gas field were discussed in detail in this paper.It was considered that the Jurassic-Triassic coal-measure source rocks were a high effective gas kitchen,gas generation intensity and rate reached the maximum (corresponding to (160-320)×10 8 m 3 /km 2 and 15-20mg/g TOC ·Ma,respectively) in recent 5Ma.Kelasu structural zone overlapped the hydrocarbon supplying centers,and sufficient gas source supplied a material basis for gas accumulation of Dabei-Keshen gas field.Regionally distributed thick gypsum rock restricted structure thrust breakthrough,protected reservoirs effectively and preserved oil and gas with high-efficiency,which provided an important assurance.Bedding-delamination contractional deformation,subsalt imbricated thrust structures and widely distributed low porosity sandstone reservoir provided a favorable storage space for oil and gas accumulation in Dabei-Keshen area.The formation of subsalt deep structure is related to compressional deformation as a result of later Himalayan episodic strong thrust compression.Pliocene-Quaternary is the main stage for the formation of Kelasu structural zone and the main structure finalized in Middle-Later Kuqa Formation.Gas generation history research showed the main gas generation stage began in sedimentary period of Kuqa Formation.Later high-efficiency oil and gas accumulation of Kelasu subsalt structural zone was determined by a better match of main gas generation stage and structure forming stage,which is an important reason for the formation of deep large gas field in Kelasu play zone.
库车坳陷具有丰富的天然气资源，继克拉2大气田发现后，近年来在克拉苏断裂下盘克深区带发现了大北、克深等大型气田。以克深、大北大气田为例，详细论述了克拉苏盐下深层大气田的形成机制与富集规律，认为侏罗系—三叠系煤系烃源岩5Ma以来生气强度和生气速率达到极大值［高达（160~320）×10 8 m 3 /km2和15~20mg/(g TOC ·Ma)］，为高效气源灶。克拉苏冲断带叠置在供烃中心之上，充足的气源是大北—克深气田天然气富集的物质基础。区域性巨厚膏盐岩盖层限制构造冲断突破、有效保护储层、高效保存油气，是盐下油气富集的重要保证。克深—大北分层滑脱收缩变形，盐下冲断叠瓦构造成排成带，广泛分布的低孔砂岩储层，为天然气富集提供了有利空间。克深—大北地区盐下深层构造的形成与区域构造挤压关系密切，主要是晚喜马拉雅期强烈冲断挤压形成，上新世—第四纪是克拉苏构造带形成的主要时期，主体构造基本都是在库车组中晚期定型；而生烃史研究也表明烃源岩主要生气期在库车组沉积以来，主生气期与构造定型期的良好匹配决定了克拉苏冲断带盐下晚期高效成藏，是该区深层形成大气田的重要原因。
Globally, the major exploration discoveries have been mainly concentrated in the deep water area of passive margins, carbonate rock, lithologicstratigraphic zone, foreland thrust belt, mature exploration area, new basin and unconventional oil/gas reservoir in recent years. Not only the conventional reservoirs including structural, lithologic-stratigraphic and structural-lithologic reservoirs, but also the unconventional reservoirs such as tight sandstone and shale have all become the important exploration targets. The exploration locations cover both conventional and unconventional petroleum distribution ranges. The former include continental margin, craton basin, foreland thrust belt and slope, and the latter include deep water slope and central lacustrine. The petroleum exploration shows the characteristics of all kinds of targets, complex environment and difficulty increase. Therefore, it has been the key work to strengthen the research on the sedimentology and reservoir and to find the favorable reservoirs. Also, the progess of global petroleum exploration has provided further direction of sedimentology and reservoir study. Particularly, the establishment of sequence stratigraphy standardization and 3D lithosomic body pattern, integrative research on sedimentation, diagenetic evolution and reconstruction of marine carbonate and clastic reservoirs, modeling of deep water sedimentation and distribution of reservoir, development of effective porosity with deep lying reservoir and its maintenance mechanism, quantitative characterization of nanometer pore and throat system in unconventional reservoirs such as tight sandstone and shale, formation mechanism of peculiar reservoirs such as volcanics and metamorphites, and tackling key problems in sedimentation and diagenetic physical and numerical modeling will certainly provide theory support for global petroleum exploration.
Based on the characteristics of recent discoveries in China, continental clastic reservoirs are the most important area for reserves and production growth. Significant progress has been made in exploration of carbonates reservoirs, for example, platform-margin reef complexes and platform interior reefs and banks. Volcanic reservoir exploration in sedimentary basins is feasible now. Mature oilfields with high water cut are predominant in the oil production in China. Some technological problems facing the stable production of mature oilfields have been solved by fine characterization of reservoirs, improving water flooding conditions, and EOR techniques. CNPC makes progress on studies of the sedimentary pattern of continental lacustrine basin shallow water delta, the origin and distribution of sandy debris flow, the mechanism and distribution prediction of deep favorable reservoirs, the sedimentary facies evaluation and reservoir prediction of low-porosity and low-permeability conglomerates, the lithofacies palaeogeography reconstruction of marine carbonates, the fine characterization of carbonates platform margins, the mechanism of carbonate reservoir superposition and rework, the origin classification of karst reservoirs, unconventional reservoir evaluation, reservoir improvement techniques, etc. These provide important theoretical and technical support for the exploration and development of oil and gas.
The depositionai features of Cretaceous braided deita in Kuga depression can be conciuded as that（1）the sediments are very coarse, and the median-grained sandstone and fine-grained sandstone are the main rock types with a proportion from 60% to 80% of the totai sandstones. The maximum can be up to 95%;（2）most of these sandstones are composed of feidspathic, iithic feidspathic and iithic sandstone with 30% ~ 50% of guartz and rich in iithociast;（3）sedimentary structures are mainiy massive bedding, iarge trough cross bedding and obiigue bedding with few paraiiei bedding, wave bedding and horizotai bedding;（4）main sedimentary period of the braided channei is fiood stage, so the sedimentation is characterized by rapid migration of channeis with different stages to form thick and continuous sandstone iayers by iots of super imposed sandbodies, which are separated by some thin intercaiated peiitic beds. Based on the data obtained from thin sections, cathodoiuminescence and SEM of outcrop and core sampies, the diagenes can be determined as compaction, cementation, dissoiution, repiacement, pressure dissoiution and recrystaiiization.According to authigenic minerai, ciay minerai, 5% in mix-iayered I /S, inciusion temperature and diagenetic types, the diagenetic stage of the Cretaceous in the study area have reached a period of the iate diagenetic stage. Features of ciay minerais show speciai types and assembiages formed under aikiine diagenetic environment. There are abundant pore types in Cretaceous sandstones, which inciude intergranuiar pore, intragranuiar pore, grain-dissoived pore, matrix-dissoived pore, intercrystai pore, primary intergranuiar pore and structurai fractures.
The clastic reservoirs of Sangonghe Formation, Lower Jurassic in central Junggar basin mainly consist of lithic sandstone, which is characterized by “two high and one low”(higher compositional maturity, higher textual maturity and lower interstitial matter content). With increasing burial depth, sandstone progressively loses porosity. Porosity was decreased mainly due to compaction and quartz cementation, but, at the same time, cements also protected grains from further compaction. The quartz cementation is slight and dissolution is not obvious. The clastic rocks are at late diagenesis stage (A1), all these make it possible that pores types are mainly characterized by residual intergranular pores and partially by intragranular solution pores. Middle compositional maturity, higher textual maturity and lower interstitial matter content are the primary causes resulting in favorable physical properties of the reservoirs. It was also pointed out that subaqueous distributary channels, river mouth bars and beach bars, which are coarse and have lower interstitial matter content, are favorable for development of the reservoirs.
In this paper we discuss the characteristic and formation of deep clastic reservoir in the Binhai area of Qikou sag by means of integration of data of physical property and pore structure, thin section, epoxy resin-impregnated thin sections, SEM and X-ray. The result shows that the deep clastic reservoir is low-middle porosity and micro-low permeability, and the reservoir quality of Es 1 is better than that of Es 3 . Meanwhile, there is a vertical zonal distribution of porosity for deep clastic reservoir, with secondary pore zone. The physical property of deep clastic reservoir is constrained by sedimentary facies, diagenesis and abnormal pressure function, and the constructive dissolution is a main factor of controlling the secondary pore. Additionally, the occurrence of fractures does the reservoir reconstruction.
There is a close relation between the sequence framework and reservoir quality, the different lithologic assemblage exists in different systems tracts which go through the different diageneisis, therefore, the reservoir quality in different systems tract is different. The relation among the sequence framework, diageneisis process, and reservoir quality has been paid much attention in this paper by the comprehensive study of geological and geophysical data. The Sha 1 Member of Tertiary in Qikou Sag could be divided into three sequences in the third class, which are consisted of LST, TST and HST. The sandstone and conglormarate from delta and subaqeous fan were developed in HST and has been in middle stage of diagenisis evolution with relative shallow depth, therefore, the reservoir quality of the sandstone and conglormarate is better than sandstone of LST. The reservoir quality in different systems tract is obvious different. Lastly, favorable and high quality reservoir has been forecasted according to the results of sequence framework, sedimentary facies and diagenesis of Sha1 member, that is, reservoir quality of Sha1 member in Qibei sub depression could be better than the quality in Qinan sub depression, and the reservoir quality of Sha 11 member could be better than the quality of Sha 12 member and Sha 13 member.
Sandstones reservoir quality of Paleogene in the Dongying Sag is mainly controlled by compaction, carbonate cementation and dissolution and deposition environment. All controlling factors to physical characteristics of reservoirs are analyzed based on the data from analyses of mold thin section, cathodoluminescence thin section, scanning electron microscope, physical properties and carbonate contents of rocks. And the evaluation to these factors is carried out. The results show that：① The porosity decreases a lot by compaction at shallow burial depth or low diagenesis stage and the porosity decreases by 6.8% as depth increases 1000m. ②Carbonate cementation have an obvious impaction on reservoir quality. When carbonate is less than 15%, porosity in sandstones is over 20% generally. With carbonate over 15%, as depth increases 1000m, porosity will decrease about 3%. ③Dissolution plays an important role in reservoir quality. Secondary porosity from carbonate dissolution is up to 20%. However, the dissolution is mainly controlled by the regional tectonic setting and the dissolution is relative stronger nearby the faults. The sandstones with middle-fine, well-sorted and low matrix were subjected heavy dissolution. The controlling of sedimentation to reservoir quality is attributed to primary porosity, dissolution and cementation.
Nowadays, most of the continental oil fields in China have stepped into the petroleum exploration stage, and the main exploration targets aim at the subtle reservoirs such as lithologic and stratigraphic reservoirs. In the practice of the petroleum exploration and development, scholars and experts gradually realize that the reservoir property is the consequence of the combined effects of tectonic facies, sedimentary facies and diagenetic facies. As a result, the research of diagenetic facies occupies an important position in reservoir evaluation and prediction under some specifical background of tectonic and sedimentary facies. In other words, if the basic geological conditions for reservoir formatting such as source rock, tectonic and sedimentary characteristics are already clear and definite, then the crucial points for petroleum exploration are how to figure out the distribution zones of the high-quality reservoirs which are mainly controlled by diagenetic facies. But up to now, the related research of diagenetic facies in clastic reservoir at home and abroad is still at the exploratory stage, and there is very little consensus about the category basis, naming scheme and quantitative characterization parameters and so on. Even more unfortunately, there are no perfect technology and theory systems on the study of logging and seismic response characteristics of various diagenetic facies. On the basis of literatures study both at home and abroad, this article mainly talks about the progress made by the diagenetic facies research since the 1990s from the following aspects: ① the concept of diagenetic facies and its development progress; ② the content, category basis, classification method, quantitative characterization parameters and naming scheme of diagenetic facies; ③ the application of diagenetic facies to the practice of petroleum exploration and development; ④ The present problems and the future trends of this research technique were also discussed for the deep development of relative theory and technology of diagenetic facies effectively. From what has been discussed above, the author then puts forward the future development direction of diagenetic facies and hopes to promote the deep development of relative theory and technology of diagenetic facies effectively.
1. School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; 2. Institute of Oil and Gas, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; 3. Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development of CNPC, Beijing 100083, China; 4. The Second Comprehensive Geophysical Survey, Shaanxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Exploration and Development, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710016, China; 5. Exploration and Development Research Institute, Xinjiang Oilfield Company, PetroChina, Karamay, Xinjiang 834000, China; 6. Downhole Operation Branch of Western Drilling Engineering Co.LTD, PetroChina, Karamay, Xinjiang 834000, China; 7. Logging Qinghai Business Division, CNPC, Dunhuang, Gansu 736202, China
Sandstone reservoirs in Dongying Sag,the Bohai Bay Basin are rich in feldspar,dissolution of which is very common and has an important influence on reservoir physical properties.Polarizing microscope,SEM and X-ray powder diffraction technologies were used to study the distribution characteristics of feldspar and its dissolution products in the sandstone reservoirs in Dongying sag.The content of feldspar varies in different areas.The highest content of feldspar occurs in the north,followed by the south,and the lowest is in the central area.Vertically,E s 1 is the richest in content of feldspar,followed by E s 2 and E s 4 f,and E s 3 is lowest.The main dissolution products of feldspar in the sandstone reservoirs in Dongying sag include kaolinite,illite and chlorite.The transformation kaolinite to illite and chlorite causes the decrease of content of kaolinite.The illite and chlorite in the shallow layer are mainly transformed from I/S,while they come from kaolinitic alteration in the deep layer.The content of I/S is high in shallow layer,and reduces with the increasing depth.
Using the changing of m icro～void of a typical rock～forming mineral， the plagioclase solution degree isproposed as a new index to evaluate the weathering degree． It can elaborately reflect the change of weatheringdegree of CDG ，especially the difference of weathering degree with depth．According to the analyzing of CDGin Hong Kong，the opposite magnitude of weathering degree of samples from three sections is confirmed．
In acidic aqueous media, feldspar minerals can be dissolved to some extents, leading to the formation of secondary pores. Secondary porosity can be quantitatively estimated based on the composition and physicochemical properties of the original and secondary minerals. Secondary porosity formed by dissolution of K-feldspar can be as high as 11.91%, while that of calcium feldspar is the lowest, being only 0.27%, and that of sodium feldspar and andesine range between the former two. Some of the CO 2 needed for dissolving feldspar might have been sourced from meteoric water and/or dissolved from the air when water got in touch with atmospheric air, while the others might have been the products of decomposition of organic matter during generation of hydrocarbons.
1.China University of Petroleum·Beijing; 2.PetroChina Tarim Oilfield Company
Based on microscopic examinations, the secondary pores of Jurassic asphaltic sandstone in central Tarim Basin can be divided into 4 types, including quartz and siliciclastic grain boundary dissolution pore, quartz secondary overgrowth boundary dissolution pores, feldspar and volcanic debris dissolution pore, and intergranular carbonate cement dissolution pore. According to study of diagenetic sequence and in combination with analyses of evolutionary history of source rocks, hydrocarbon reservoiring history, and fluid inclusion, it is believed that they have been formed in the end of SilurianEarly Devonian, DevonianPermian, Cretaceous and Tertiary, respectively. The first, third and fourth phases of dissolution were mainly resulted from the organic acid generated by the underlying CambrianOrdovician mature source rocks. The second phase of dissolution was resulted from the organic acid generated from microbial degradation of hydrocarbons in fossil oil reservoirs. Dissolution was controlled by lithology, the destructiveness of the uplifted fossil reservoirs and their relationship with faults. The good reservoirs of dissolution type are mainly distributed in foreshore facies belt, especially in areas near the Tazhong Ⅰ fault or in areas where Silurian was seriously uplifted and exposed.
The types, microstructures, distribution and evolutionary characteristics of pores in Paleogene medium-deep clastic reservoir rocks of Sanma area, Huanghua depression, have been discussed in this paper. The result shows that the distribution and evolution of porosity in clastic reservoir rocks vary obviously with the increasing burial depth of the reservoir rock. There exist three evolutionary stages and accordingly the reservoir porosity can be classified into three zones: the zone of primary pores, that of transitional pores and that of secondary pores. The depths of the three zones are shallower than 2 200 m, from 2 200 to 3 400 m and greater than 3 400 respectively. The primary porosity is unimportant in medium-deep reservoir rocks, whereas the secondary pores occupy the main part. There are three secondary pore zones in medium-deep reservoir rocks, with the depth being from 3 200 to 3 500 m, from 3 600 to 4 000 m and from 4 200 to 4 500 m respectively. The secondary pores include mainly intergranular dissolved pores, intra-granular dissolved pores, mould pores and microcracks. The decrease of the primary porosity results mainly from compaction or cementation. The main factors responsible for the development of secondary pores are corrosion of quartz and feldspar or transformation of minerals. This paper also deals with the primary geological and/or geochemical factors controlling diagenesis and pore evolution of reservoir rocks, which include lithofacies, lithology, geochemical charateristics of water in pores (organic acid content), early calcite cementation, early hydrocarbon filling and abnormal high-pressure of fluids in pores.
Experimental means,including ordinary slices,casting sections and electron microscope,were used to study samples from reservoirs in the Shahejie Formation of Qibei slope in Bohai Bay Basin.The results were then combined with logging data to analyze the features(lithological composition,porosity and permeability distribution,pore texture and re-servoir quality index( RQI ))and forming mechanism of the reservoirs.The analyses show that the sandstone reservoirs in the formation are typical low-porosity and low-permeability reservoirs featuring in low maturity,various types of pores,Ⅳ type of pore structure,small-to micro-sized pore throat and secondary intergrannual pores.The forming mechanisms of the reservoirs include sedimentation,secondary dissolution and deep overpressure.It also indicates that sedimentary setting of the channels controlled the particle size,cement properties and content,pore throat size and sorting coefficient of the re-servoirs.Sandstone in the main channels offered better conditions for the forming of reservoirs as it is thicker and has a porosity of 3%-5% higher than that at the side edges.Primary pores in the reservoirs were almost killed during compaction and cementation,while dissolution of feldspar and other minerals created secondary pores and provided reservoir space.Overpressure in the reservoirs restrained compaction but boosted dissolution and enlarged reservoiring space.A comprehensive analysis of all the information suggests that secondary pore zones in gravity flow channels and fan delta fronts be the most favorable locations for reservoirs to develop.
Pore fluids can cause the change of mineral solubility, which result dissolution or precipitation of mineral in the clastic reservoir, and the formation of dissolution secondary porosity in the sandstone reservoir is closely related to the change of mineral solubility of clastic skeleton grains in geological fluids. This paper summarizes the solubility variations of quartz, feldspar and carbonate minerals according to temperature, pressure, pH value, organic acids, etc. Previous studies that mineral solubility and equilibrium distribution of dissolved components mainly depend on formation temperature and pH value of pore fluids, formation temperature and pH value control the form and content of complex, and the relative content of CO 3 2- , HCO 3 - and CO 2 in formation water dominate minerals solubility. The interactions between fluids and minerals in the reservoir are changed by temperature, pressure, and pH value, therefore the mechanism of dissolution secondary porosity forming is different from condition changing. There are very few previous studies of mineral solubility link to the mechanism of dissolution secondary porosity forming, and we suggest to establish a quantitative relationship between mineral solubility and the characteristics of secondary porosity, it should be paid more attention to do experiment and numerical simulation based on mineral composition of the reservoir rock with different temperature, pressure, fluids and other geological environmental conditions in future study.
Secondary porosity generation of clastic reservoirs are mainly associated with dissolution of feldspar, lithic fragment and cements, and the dissoluble force is correlative with fluid compositions. There are three homogenization temperatures data of fluid inclusions of clastic reservoirs in different strata and different wells from upper Ordovician to Carboniferous in west Manjiaer sag in the Tarim Basin. The fluid inclusions are mainly immature oxidation and acid fluids. The contents of inclusions are very different in different wells, strata and rocks. The ions of inclusions hosted in overgrowth zone of quartz are simple, which have low content of compositions. The compositions of inclusions occurring in calcite and minerals hosted in quartz are complex, and the composition varies greatly. The physical properties of reservoir are positive correlate with predominant contents of HCO - 3 、CO 2- 3 、Cl - , and irrelative with NO - 3、SO 2- 4 . There are three stages of migration of oil and gas.
Main controlling factors for the development of deep buried reservoirs in the Bohai Bay basin are discussed on sedimentation, diagenesis and other related factors. Besides the influence of sedimentation, low geothermic gradient, high deposition rate, high heating rate, high hydrocarbon generation intensity and overpressure are main factors for the formation of anomaly high porosity intervals in deep buried reservoirs of the Bohai Bay basin, because they affected the course and intensity of diagenesis. The relatively high porosity and high permeability intervals were best developed in the Huanghua depression, and second in the Liaohe depression, and worst in the Jizhong depression.
Abstract：Vitrinite reflectance is one of the important reflections of the controlling action of tectonic compression on the reservoir in the southern margin of Junggar Basin. Grain packing density is a direct result of tectonic compression that controls the reservoir. An analysis of the measured vitrinite reflectance of the Cretaceous-Neogene source rocks from the wells and outcrops and a study of the Cretaceous-Upper Tertiary micro-reservoir and grain packing density in 14 wells reveal the evolution of tectonic compression controlling the reservoir in the southern margin of Junggar Basin from Cretaceous to Tertiary. The high Ro values were in the eastern Hutubi area in the southern margin of Junggar Basin, and the low Ro values were in the western area in Cretaceous. And the distribution of grain packing density is the same as the distribution of Ro values, as shown by the map. Because of the uplifting of the Bogeda Mountain in the Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous period, the tectonic compression in Hutubi area was stronger than that in Xihu-Dushanzi area in the southern margin of Junggar Basin. The distribution of vitrinite reflectance in Palaeogene was different from that in Cretaceous. The values of Ro and grain packing density in Anjihai-Manasi-Tugulu anticline area of the middle-distal thrust belt decreased in two directions, i.e., the foot of the thrust belt and the foredeep. So the main reservoir-controlling factor was the buried thermal effect instead of the tectonic compression. Because of the re-uplifting of the Tianshan Mountains in Upper Tertiary, the tectonic compression changed the main reservoir-controlling factor through the distribution of grain packing density. An analysis of the micro-reservoir shows that the relationship between porosity and Ro was in negative correlation, so were the things at the diagenetic stage in Cretaceous; nevertheless, in Lower-Tertiary, the relationship between porosity and Ro was in positive correlation.
Overpressure has close realationship with reservoir forming and it has many cause of formation,such as: undercompaction,hydrothermal pressurization,clay mineral dehydration in it’s transformation,structure extrusion,hydrocarbon generation and so on.however,the undercompaction in the fast deposition of basin and the generation of hydrocarbon are the main reasons of the overpressure forming.Overpressure can restrain the generation of hydrocarbon,reinforce the seal ability of caprock,improve the character of r...
1. Geoscience College, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249,China; 2. Research Institute of Exploration and Development, PeroChina Jidong Oilfield Company, Tangshan, 063004, China
In order to raise up success rate of oil & gas exploration in mid-deep sedimentary basin with overpressures, characteristics of pressure response in reservoir compaction and cementation in Dongying formation in Northwestern Bozhong sag was studied, based on a lot of data from thin section, core analysis, grading analysis, SEM, etc . Strong evidence was obtained to testify that detrital reservoir compaction was inhibited by overpressures. In addition, it was not only proved that both carbonate and authigenic clay would be prompted by overpressures, but also indicated that this two types of cementation had disparate characteristics of pressure response in study area. The results showed that primary pore could be preserved about 2.0% as pore pressure was above hydrostatic pressure every 7 MPa in overpressures setting. With response to overpressure, cementations strength changed typically in scarp shape as depth increased: ①Abrupt slope stage from the less depth to 280 m outside of overpressures interface, where cementation strength swiftly increased, was characterized by weak cementation strength, whose cementation was dominated by authigenic clay with about 85%; ②Gentle slope stag from 280 m outside of overpressures interface to overpressures zone, where cementation strength slowly increased, was characterized by strong-middle cementation strength,whose cementation was mainly occupied by carbonate cementation with over 75%. In normal pressure zone close to overpressures, influenced depth of carbonate cementation with response to overpressures was obviously shallower than that of authigenic clay minerals, the former was about 280 m and the latter was over 430 m. The correlation between residually primary pore and permeability was well in study area, whose coefficient could be near 0.77. It indicated that sandstone with a number of primary porosity could be effective reservoir in mid-deep strata. The research can be taken as theoretical basis for oil & gas exploration in mid-deep strata of sedimentary basin with overpressures.
The research and practice of exploration show that overpressure systems in sedim entary basins have close relationship with hydrocarbon occurrence and are signif icant for exploration of deep reservoirs.Overpressure inhibits or retards the generation and maturation of hydrocarbon and improves the porosity and permeabil ity of the reservoirs. It also strengthens the sealing for hydrocarbon and broa dens the range of“liquid state window”which determines the accumulation and po oling of natural gas. So it creates favorable conditions for the exploration an d development of reservoirs in the deep of basin. Overpressure systems formes i ndependent hydrocarbon accumulation systems as a form of compartment from which fluid releases repetitively through a cycle of healed state to fracturing state .There are still many problems to resolve, especially for the relationship bet ween overpressure and hydrocarbon generation, which has been argued, and the mec hanism of hydrocarbon accumulation in overpressure systems. The issues of hydro carbon accumulation in overpressure systems will be important tasks for oil or g as exploration in future.
The sandstone reservoirs within the 3 rd and 4 th members of Shahejie Formation in Dongying Depression, the Bohai Bay Basin are moderately to strongly overpressured with the maximum pressure coefficient of 2.0 and the maximum excessive pressure of 40 MPa calculated based on the measured pressures.Analysis indicates that oil-bearing properties of the reservoirs correlate to the development degree of overpressure,and current reservoir overpressure is mainly caused by the overpressured fluids from source rocks.Integrated with basin modeling and fluid inclusions analysis,this paper reconstructed the geo-pressure evolutionary history of the sandstone reservoirs in the 3 rd and 4 th member of Shahejie Formation.The first stage reservoir overpressure was mainly caused by the rapid subsidence during the deposition of the 3 rd member of Shahejie Formation to the end of Dongying Formation that blocked pore fluid discharging.The overpressure might be released to hydrostatic pressure along with the tectonic uplifting during the late Dongying Formation to early Guantao Formation.From the late Minghuazhen Formation to the present,the bulk of the source rock is still at peak oil generation and large amount of oil/gas-bearing overpressured fluid generated by the source rocks charge into the sandstone reservoirs,leading to the second stage overpressure.
Based on the data of DST and FMT, the distribution and evolution characteristics of overpressure in Northern Liaozhong subdepression are analyzed by applying interval transit time and numerical simulation method. It is suggested that overpressure is extensively developed in the basin. The reservoir overpressure which the max pressure coefficient is 1.93, is mainly developed in Paleogene formation and buried hill formation. The undercompaction is extensively developed in Lower Dongerxia Formation and the calculated pressure coefficient can reach 1.9 and more. Compaction disequilibrium resulted of high sedimentary rate and hydrocarbon generation are main factors for the development and evolution of overpressure in shale intervals, while the main mechanism of reservoir overpressure is the migration and charging of the overpressure fluids from source rock in the centre of subdepression. Overpressure developed since the Shahejie Formation deposits and increased gradually until the end of Dongying Stage, then decreased. From Mingxia Formation deposits, overpressure increased once more and reached the maximum now. This paper studied the characteristics of fluid inclusions and geothermal with pressure in reservoirs, the history of hydrocarbon generation and maturity of oil and gas, the physical properties of petroleum. It is suggested that the process of petroleum accumulation is episodic and late rapid. The migration of petroleum along the faults is limited as the development and activities of faults is weak. Hydraulic fracture caused by overpressure developed in source rock is the major conduit for episodic hydrocarbon expulsion; meanwhile, overpressure is a favorable power for long lateral hydrocarbon migration. It is suggested that overpressure dominated controlled episodic and late rapid petroleum accumulation.
Drilling data revealed there occurring overpressure in Putaohua oil layer in the Gulong Sag,Songliao Basin, but no undercompaction being discovered.On the contrary, the undercompaction existed in the overlying shales of Members 1 and 2, Nenjiang Formation and Qingshankou Formation.According to the comparison between reservoirs' testing pressure and the over-pressure calculated by interval transit time, the reason of the overpressure in oil layer might mainly be from the pressure transference of internal overpressure system.The statistics of oil-production capacity and test pressure data indicated that the oil cracking had some contribution to the overpressure of oil layer, and the pressure gradient of oil layer which existed overpressure was higher than that of hydrostatic pressure gradient.It comprehended that there might be flowing pressure in the reservoirs, and Qingshankou Formation and Members 1 and 2, Nenjiang Formation are still providing fluids to Putaohua oil layer nowadays.
1. Hangzhou Research Institute of Petroleum Geology, Petro China, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310023, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Carbonate Reservoirs of CNPC, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310023, China; 3. Lanzhou Center for Oil and Gas Resources, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China; 4. SINOPEC Exploration & Production Research Institute, Beijing 100083, China; 5. Wuxi Research Institute of Petroleum Geology, SINOPEC, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214126, China; 6. Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Petro China Jidong Oilfield Company, Tangshan, Hebei 063004, China; 7. State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640, China
Crude oil rich in sulfur,kerogen of types Ⅱ and Ⅲ and magnesium sulfate were tested in 6 reaction systems(divided into 3 groups) so as to study the influences of thermochemical sulfate reduction(TSR) on gaseous hydrocarbon components and carbon isotopes.The tests were made in gold tube-autoclave system.The above-mentioned 6 reaction systems had the same temperature and pressure;hence their results were comparable.The modeling experiments have proved that: 1)TSR leads to the obvious increase of H 2 S and CO 2 yields;2)TSR makes gaseous hydrocarbon become dryer,that is,the C 2+ series are easier to react in TSR while CH 4 seldom participates in TSR;3)TSR makes the carbon isotopes of gaseous hydrocarbon become heavier and that of CO 2 become lighter;4) TSR makes much more obvious change of carbon isotopes in methane than in ethane and propane,that is,the value of δC 2 -δC 1 decreases.The changes of gaseous hydrocarbon components and carbon isotopes caused by TSR influence the index and empirical formula of gas-source rock correlation,so the influences of TSR should be taken into consideration in gas-source rock correlation of natural gas rich in sulfur.
选用高含硫原油、Ⅱ型干酪根、Ⅲ型干酪根以及硫酸镁作为反应物,设计了3组共6个反应体系,以对比发生硫酸盐热还原作用(TSR)与否对烃类组分及碳同位素的影响。模拟实验利用黄金管—高压釜限定系统完成,6个反应体系具有完全相同的反应温度和压力,反应结果具有可对比性。模拟实验结果证实:①TSR反应导致气态产物中H 2 S和CO 2 含量的明显增加;②TSR反应导致气态天然气组分变干,即碳数越多的气态烃越容易发生TSR反应,甲烷很难作为反应物参与TSR反应;③TSR反应导致气态烃碳同位素变重,而CO 2 碳同位素变轻;④TSR导致甲烷碳同位素变重最多,乙烷、丙烷碳同位素变重相对较小,即δ 13 C 2 与δ 13 C 1 差值变小。TSR反应导致的天然气组分及碳同位素的变化影响了油气源对比的经验公式及判断指标,因此在高含硫天然气区进行气源对比时应考虑TSR的影响。
Based on core observation, thin section identification, diagenetic porosity evolution and studies of burial history relationship, the authors analyzed the origin and evolution of gypsum- salt rock microfacies of Leikoupo Formation in central Sichuan basin and investigated the controlling role and influence of gypsum-salt rocks on the reservoir of Leikoupo Formation in the aspects of sedimentary facies, diagenetic process, and tectonization. It is shown that the gypsum- salt rocks in central Sichuan basin were formed in a limited tidal flat environment of epicontinental sea, which included gypsum-halite pond of supratidal zone, gypsum- halite lake of intertidal zone and gypsum- halite basin microfacies of limited subtidal zone. Its origin included the concentration of the supratidal zone shallow dense brine in low areas, and the sinking and replacement of superficial dense brine produced in the intertidal-subtidal zone. The distribution of gypsum-salt rocks was related to the deposit center migration resulting from rising and falling of the sea level, and also had something to do with the distribution of the point beach. The formation of gypsum- salt rocks, the dissolution effects in the contemporaneous-penecontemporary period, the supergene period karst collapse and the medium-deep burial period dissolution generated by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) all had important contribution to the formation and control of the upper reservoir in Leikoupo Formation in central Sichuan basin. In addition, gypsum-salt rock diapir as cracks and fractures generated by tectonic movements played a certain role in promoting the migration of hydrocarbon source and the redistribution of the gas reservoir.
The gypsum rocks which mainly deposited during Longwangmiao Period of the Early Cambrian are widely developed in Sichuan Basin. Based on the identification and statistics of gypsum rocks from the deep drill cores and outcrops, we found that there are two salt concentrated areas: Chuannan salt concentrated area and E' xi salt concentrated area. The thickest gypsum rock unit is 690. 40m in the areas. The lithologies are argillaceous and dolomitic gypsum rocks in the western Chuannan area, and gypsum dolomites in the eastern Chuarman area and the E' xi area. In combination with previous studies, we suggest that the gypsum rocks deposited in shallow ramp environments. Two types of genetic models were put forward: tidal sabkha model and ramp evaporation model. The relationship of reservoir to cap, posttectonic and the sealing of gypsum rock in Chuannan salt concentrated area was analyzed in the paper as well. It is shown that the cap of Lower Cambrian gypsum rocks and the Sinian dolomite reservoir are well matched spatially. The sealing of Lower Cambrian gypsum rock is effective in Sichuan Basin. However, it loses sealing effectiveness outside the basin because of the basin boundary faults and the uplift exposure of Cambrian. The case study on Weiyuan gas field indicates that gas accumulates where the gypsum rocks are distributed in Weiyuan area. In contrast, there is no gas accumulation without the distribution of gypsum rock in Ziyang area. The evidence also supports that the gypsum rocks have an important role in the process of gas accumulation in the Sichuan Basin.
Saline deposits are good regional cap rocks in petroliferous basins, yet not perfect. Research shows that saline deposits are characterized by "embitterment at low temperature and plastic deformation at high temperature". The sealing capacity of saline deposits changes with burial depth, and the depth from 3 000 to 3 200 m is critical to the capping effectiveness of saline deposits in the Kelasu tectonic zone. The effectiveness of subsalt trap accumulations is influenced by the evolution of saline deposits. The key time for the closing of cap rocks in the anti-cline zone of Kesalu is the middle and late Kuqa periods, and the main exploration targets are the complete anticline traps buried over 3 200 m deep. In the deep zone of Kelasu, the key time for the closing of cap rocks is the early and middle Kuqa periods, and petroleum may be trapped in subsalt blocks and broken anticlines when faults are laterally sealed. Research fits the status of exploration, and helps to improve exploration success rate.
Thick salt beds of the Lower Tertiary are developed in the middle segment of the Kuqa foreland fold belt in the northern Tarim basin. The Meso-Cenozoic structures of the Kuqa foreland fold belts can be divided into three large horizons based on the salt beds, i. e. , suprasalt structures, salt bed structures and subsalt structures. The suprasalt structures include salt anticlines, thrusts and fault-related folds, suprasalt pop-up, forced folds, thrust screened structures and salt nappes. The salt bed structures are mainly salt pillows, interbedded thrust-folds, salt welds and allochthounous salt sheets. The subsalt structures mainly include popup structures, fault-related folds, imbricated thrusts and duplex structures. The Formation of the salt tectonics in the Kuqa foreland fold belt may be controlled by compression, gravitational gliding and gravitational spreading. The hydrocarbon accumulation conditions and models of the salt-related structures are discussed in the paper. Structural traps have a bearing upon salt beds in the middle segment of the Kuqa foreland fold belt. The source rocks are mainly located below the salt beds that can act as excellent caprocks and seal of the oil-gas pools. Thrust faults cutting through salt beds play an important role in controlling suprasalt, salt beds and subsalt petroleum accumulation. The subsalt horizons are the favorable place to find out oil-gas pools.
The Tertiary seal is the most enclosed regional cap-rock, deposited from semi-closed bay and lagoon lake, with characterizing by the very large thickness(1000m), widely distributive province, very dense , and very high pore pressure and high breakthrough pressure(＞60MPa), which constructed the strain segmenting zone ,pore pressure barrier and the division of two forming-pool models-the Kelasu model and the Dawanqi model in the Kuche Depression. The characteristics of Kelasu model placed under the regional seal with the overpressure , in anticline trap ,and which one of the Dawabqi model placed upper the regional seal, with the normal-pressure, in many kinds of trap. It has been the one of the most important conditions of the oil and gas enrichment in this depression and the forming factors of the Kela 2 gigantic gas field. Some gas fields similar to Kela 2 will be discovered under the Tertiary seal.
L#cod#x000fc; Xiuxiang , Jin Zhijun , Zhou Xinyuan
吕修祥, 金之钧, 周新源
Very thick gypseous salt formation developed in both Upper and Lower Tertiary, both of them have an important effects on the oil and gas accumulation in this depression. 3 sets of sealing and reservoir formation assemblie related to the evaporite rock developed:①thick Cretaceous sandstone and its overlying Lower Tertiary salt formation;②Jidik sandstone in Upper Tertiary and its overlying evaporite formations; and ③interbedded sand- and mud stones in Kangcun-Kuqa Formation over the evaporite formations. Structural deformation in Kuqa depression area rather strong and oil types of traps are mostly related to faults in Kuqa depression. There are mainly two types of trap:①compressional (faulted) anticlinal traps underneath salt zone, where Triassic, Cretaceous, Jurassic and bottom Tertiary sandstones have reservoir properties; and ②tensional (faulted) anticlinal traps above salt zone, in which formations having reservoir properties are Kangcun and Kuqa Formations. Two types of oil/gas accumulation model are found above and beneath the salt formation, i.e., arched anticlinal oil and gas pools above the salt formation and compressional anticlinal gas pools underneath this salt formation. While faults are main pathways for the migration of oil and gas generated from Triassic-Jurassic source rocks into these pools. Gas predominately accumulated underneath this salt formation.
1. Hangzhou Institute of Geology, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and development of China, HangZhou, Zhejiang 310023, China; 2. Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and development, Tarim Oil Field Branch Company, Korla, Xinjiang, 841000, China
According to cast liquid photo,scan electron microscope,impressing hydrargyrum,quality etc.,the research thinks that clay minerals membrane of the lower Donghetang reservoir of the Devonian in well qun 6 area of the Tarim Basin is divided into original cause and self-generating cause,among them with self-generating cause for most.Clay minerals membrane usually comes into being in earlier diagenetic stage(or developing together diagenetic stage),which have a just relation to the face porosity of the reservoir,and a negative relation to the pore structure.Porosity of the lower Donghetang reservoir developing clay minerals membrane is most of 7%~17.6%(mean of 11.53%)and permeability is most of(0.1~10)×10 -3 μm 2 (mean of 4.15×10 -3 μm 2 ),and these quality is obviously higher than the upper Donghetang reservoir not developing clay minerals membrane,whose mean porosity is 5.23% and mean permeability is 2.88×10 -3 μm 2 .Clay minerals membrane has a close relation to depositional facies,temperature and pressure system of reservoir,earlier hydrocarbon infusion.Generally speaking,clay minerals membrane develops in lower-middle shore face more familiar,while is short in the upper shore face and foreshore where clay is washed cleanlily.Hydrocarbon infusion in earlier diagenetic stage and abnormal high pressure system(well qun 6 area pressure coefficients for 1.59)have crucial function to protect clay minerals membrane.
Clay rim is one of the influencing factors of sandstone properties.The characteristics of clay rims in sandstones from the Mingshui Formation in well Songke 1 in the Songliao Basin have been studied by means of casting thin section observation,XRD,SEM and EDS.The clay rims in sandstones from the Mingshui Formation are composed of montmorillonites with potassium and iron,and the contents of potassium and iron increase as burial depth increases.The clay rims are original ones,and can be further divided into inherited and infiltrated clay rims.They mainly distribute in fine-grained and silt-grained sandstones in shore sand platform,and are poorly developed in fine-grained and medium-grained sandstones in subaqueous distributary channels in delta fronts.The generation of clay rims is mainly controlled by source,climate,granularity and hydrodynamic condition.The genetic type,mineral composition and crystal feature of clay rims all influence the preservation of porosity.As a result,the studies of the composition and distribution of clay rims have an important significance for clastic rock reservoir evaluation.
Reservoir sandstones of the Permian lower Shihezi formation in Daniudi gas field of Ordos basin, mainly consist of lithic quartz sandstone and litharenite, with low compositional maturity and median-high textural maturity. It belongs to extra-low porosity and permeability reservoir, with dissolved intergranular pores as the chief accumulation space. The lower Shihezi formation reservoir sandstones are now in the B stage of mesodiagenesis, the main diagenesis of which includes compaction, cementation, dissolution and replacement. The mechanical compaction, which principally takes place in the early time of burial history, is the predominant reason for reservoir quality destruction of lower Shihezi formation sandstones with burial depth shallower than 2 350 m. The different cementation and dissolution take place progressively with the burial depth increasing, making the destruction degree resulted by mechanical compaction weakened. The destruction impact of cementation is characterized by precipitation of different cement in primary and secondary pores. The cementation of pore-lining chlorite and carbonate exert two different influences on reservoir quality. The construction influence of pore-lining chlorite cementation on lower Shihezi formation reservoir quality is prior to destruction. The pore-lining chlorite can preserve some primary intergrannular porosity by weakening the degree of mechanical compaction and inhibiting the subsequent generation of quartz cement, furthermore, provide the passageway for the entrance of acid fluid of the A stage of mesodiagenesis and flowout of dissolved resultant product, making a large number of secondary pores produced. On the one hand, for the cementation of early stage carbonate, it not only weakens the destruction degree of mechanical compaction, but also provides favourable condition for the late disslotion; on the other hand, for the cementation of late stage carbonate, it precipitates in the pores and obstructs the throats, making the reservoir quality destructed heavily. Dissolution of the reservoir sandstones is the main factor of the development of secondary pores, which can improve the physical property of the reservoir sandstones. There are three dissolution zones in the lower Shihezi formation sandstones, located in the vicinity of 2 400 m, 2 500 m and 2 670 m perspectively.
The destruction and preservation of primary porosity during burial diagenesis is an important part of the sandstone reservoir quality research, and their significance to the research of oil and gas geology is self-evident. Compared with the formation and preservation of secondary porosity, the factors affecting the destruction and preservation of primary porosity are with unique complexity and diversity. Based on the recent progresses from extensive documents, the paper tries to further understand the significance and effect of different diagenetic mechanisms on the destruction and preservation of primary porosity in the sandstone reservoirs, such as the mechanical compaction, cementation, formation overpressure, grain coats, allochthonous salt and hydrocarbon emplacement. Currently, the new generation of reservoir quality models has successfully predicted porosity and permeability in diverse sandstone reservoirs under many different burial conditions, which largely benefited from some important update of the destruction and preservation of primary porosity in modern diagenetic models of sandstone. However, this is just a milestone building accurate pre-drill reservoir quality prediction models, and there are still many problems in those models. The indefinite kinetics and processes of primary porosity evolution are difficult problems to achieve more accurate pre-drill predictions. The closer integration of the diagenesis, fluids, depositional processes and basin evolution may be one of most promising development directions of solving the destruction and preservation of primary porosity in the sandstone reservoirs in future.
The occurrence,forming conditions,and pore-preserving mechanism of chlorite rims in the Upper Triassic Xuejiahe Formation of Baojie area from central to southern Sichuan basin were studied in detail by means of thin section analysis and SEM analysis.The result shows that chlorite rims grew vertically on the grain surface and took the shape of isopachous grain-coating.This kind of cement was formed during the early diagenetic stage and was controlled mainly by depositional environment and provenance conditions.The presence of chlorite rims enhanced the compaction resistance of rock,inhibited quartz overgrowth on detrital-quartz grains,accelerated dissolution and formed excellent pore-throat configuration.Therefore,the chlorite rims played an important role in the preservation of residual primary pores in the tight sandstone reservoirs in the study area.
〓With thin section analysis and scanning electron microscopic analysis, the diagenetic phenomenon of Yanchan Formation sandstone in the Ordos basin were systematically studied, and it shows that chlorite film was the important diagenetic phenomenon in this area. Depending on the studies relevant to the features including occurrence, structural characteristics, relations between other diagenetic minerals of sandstones in this area, the formation mechanism was discussed in detail. Chlorite rim had some relevance with the original porosity of reservoirs, its formation had more closely relationship with hydrodynamic conditions during the contemporaneous deposition. They belonged to a mark of water power conditions for they occur mainly in the subaqueous distributary channel and mouth bar in the deltaic front, and had strong environmental specificity; chlorite rim had double layer structure in which isopachous rim cement of internal layer was relative dense, and formed during the early diagenetic stage. Outerlayer authigenic chlorite grown on the rim surface vertically with better crystal form was formed during the late diagenetic stage; chlorite film was of a limited ability to protect the sandstone porosity. The reason for this is that the porosity of sandstones with chlorite clay rim was better mainly depended on the petrological characteristics of sedimentary sandstones under strong hydrodynamic condition. It had little relation with the chlorite clay rim. So the formation model of chlorite clay rim was put forward. It was considered that the formation of the chlorite film experienced five steps: sedimentary stage of original particles, stage of clay adsorption and film formation on the surface of original particles, early compaction stage of particles, stage of rim chloritization, authigenic chlorite forming stage; In view of this, the sedimentary sandstone reservoirs that had chlorite clay rims under strong hydrodynamic conditions should be the target in the process of oil exploration.
Tight gas production is taking up bigger and bigger shares in China’s total natural gas production.However,further exploration and development of this kind of gas reservoirs face great challenges due to their distribution complexity and prediction difficulty.Although the Xujiahe Formation in western Sichuan depression is typical tight sandstone,it has relatively good reservoirs with relatively higher permeability and porosity.Research of these reservoirs reveals a unique phenomenon of the existence of a rim chlorite cementation.Based on analysis of data such as thin section,SEM and X-ray diffraction and in combination with sedimentary facies,regional geology and volcanic activity,the authors determined the period in which the chlorite was formed.It is suggested that the existence of chlorite can effectively protect the primary pores in these reservoirs.However,the sole exis-tence of ring-shaped chlorite cementation does not necessarily mean a relatively better reservoir.Other pre-requirements for a high-quality reservoir are also needed,for example,the ring must be thick and continuous enough and the reservoirs must be formed in high-energy sedimentary environment.
To get a better understanding of the distribution pattern of favorable reservoir belts in the medium-deep clastic rocks in the Qikou sag of the Huanghua depression, and find out premium reservoir zone, the characteristics and controlling factors of the medium-deep reservoirs in the Qikou sag were analyzed. Comprehensive study into the structural setting, provenance, depositional system, and reservoir properties shows that the Paleogene in the Qikou sag has multi-sags and multi-slopes, with slopes accounting for over 70% of the total sag area. A number of large braided river (fan) delta front - gravity flow sand bodies matching with multi-slope zones lay a good material foundation for the formation of medium-deep effective reservoirs there. Generally buried at over 2500 m, the medium-deep clastic rocks are mainly lithic feldspathic sandstone, with secondary pores and cracks as major reservoir space. Being in the medium diagenesis evolution stage, the medium-deep clastic rocks in the Qikou sag span over a large depth. Nine major factors affecting reservoir properties have been identified by mathematical geology. Although the medium-deep clastic rock interval is poor in physical properties and complex in pore structure, high sedimentation rate, medium geothermal field, high fluid pressure, high feldspar content, relatively high dissolution rate and early oil and gas charge have given rise to three to four belts with abnormally high porosity in it, which are all favorable hydrocarbon reservoir zones.
[Zhao WenZhi] PetroChina Explorat & Prod Co, Beijing 100007, Peoples R China.;[Zhu GuangYou; Su Jin] PetroChina, Res Inst Petr Explorat & Dev, Beijing 100083, Peoples R China.;[Yang HaiJun; Zhu YongFeng] PetroChina, Tarim Oilfield Co, Res Inst Petr Explorat & Dev, Korla 841000, Peoples R China.
Marine sedimentary basins in China have undergone three phases of important tectonic changes in the end of Early Paleozoic, Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic and Late Cenozoic. These tectonic changes have exerted strong impacts on the hydrocarbon generation, migration, accumulation and on the occurrence and distribution of hydrocarbon reservoirs. The marine basins in China generally developed multi source rocks. Due to the much difference of their developing age and position, the time of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion between these source rocks is not often synchronous. It is existed that the characteristic of the multi-stage hydrocarbon-charging. Therefore, multi-accumulation of petroleum is an important characteristic of the marine basin in China. Under the influence of multi-stage structural movements, multi-stage accumulation results from multi-stage maturity and expulsing hydrocarbon of multi source rocks. The eastern bingo area of Tarim Basin is a typical example of multiphase hydrocarbon accumulations in a marine basin of China. At present, it has been determined that three main accumulation stages including Late Caledonian, Late Hercynian and Late Himalayan period. The heterogeneity carbonate reservoir developed in eastern Lungu area, and forming trap-system of seam and holes. After the process of earlier and later structure actions, these traps did not experience big changes. Therefore, the charging-hydrocarbon of three stages has been retained. The three-stage process of hydrocarbon charging is also confirmed by the analysis of geochemical data. Through the geological analysis, the process of hydrocarbon accumulation reappears. And, the model of marine multi-stage hydrocarbon-charging and accumulation is established.