Geographical science system deals with the study of interrelation and interaction between man and nature (environment). Owing to the importance of mankind in the Earth system changes since Holocene, a new sphere-Anthropo-sphere is added to physical spheres on the Earth in geographical science system and designated as the equivalent to the summation of all physical spheres. In the diagram (Fig.2), Anthropo-sphere is placed in the center and its interrelations with physical spheres are shown. This is an innovation point in the global change study. Moreover, the study of geographical science system is connected to the global change study in this way, facilitating Chinese geographical research work open to the world.
The Yangtze River Delta is designed as a region to test the validity of the theory of geographical science system and the guidelines for research are also suggested.
The ultimate aim of the study of geographical science system is to provide scientific basis for the sustainable development of the region. The key issues of the sustainable development of the Yangtze River Delta are highlighted.
Over the past one and half centuries, sedimentology has been experiencing a hard development course from the beginning up to now. Comprehensively speaking, the development of sedimentology can be parted into seven phases: budding phase, initial formation phase, professional research phase, summary and enhancement phase, theoretic formation sublime phase, discipline crossing and integration phase. During the first phase (from 1830 to 1894), the Walther Law was the most important, which was not only used at that time, but also is being used now. During the second phase (from 1894 to 1931), sedimentology was formed into an independent branch of science. During the third phase (from 1931 to 1950), a lot of new conceptions and research methods were put forward and a series of books were published. During the fourth phase (from 1951 to 1970), the prominent advances were the patterns and interpretation of the formation and diagrammatization. During the fifth phase (from 1971 to 1980), sedimentological theory was summerized comprehensively. During the sixth phase (from 1981 to 1990), new theories and new viewpoints were put forward, which made this phase a flourish development stage. The seventh phase (from 1991 to now) is the discipline crossing and integration phase. The depth and extent of sedimentology were expanded by the new technologies and methods. The development of sedimentology in each phase showed that it could not only be affected by the enlightening of science and technology, but also has promoted the global industrial revolution and economic growth, especially in the aspect of each sediment ore deposit. With the progress of geological exploration and exploitation, many important ores were found in sediments, including oil and gas, coal, gold, uranium, diamond, potash, platinum, aluminum, manganese, gypsum, and gas hydrate. Sedimentology is one of the main basic branches of earth science and its highlights and fronts are moving to four topics: resource, environment, disaster, and global climate change. There are obvious laws on the seven aspects for the future progress of sedimentology: from being macroscopic to microscopic research scale; from being qualitative to quantitative research method; from theory to application on research purpose; from being static to dynamic research form; from being single to multiple research disciplines; using computer technology instead of manual; for research field, from regional to global consideration .
NO3-contamination in groundwater is one of the major problems confronted by groundwater management for Shijiazhuang City. In this study, nitrogen isotopes and hydrochemistry for groundwater and various potential recharge sources were investigated to determine and identify the extent and sources of contamination from NO3-in the groundwater beneath Shijiazhuang City. Inorganic nitrogen compounds in the groundwater mainly existed in the species of NO3-，whose concentrations ranged from 2.65 to 152.1 mg/L with a mean of 54.88±31mg/L（[WTBX]n[WT]=44）. Some 48% of the total samples had NO3- concentrations, which exceeded the drinking water standard of 50 mg/L. The 15N values of groundwater ranged from +4.53‰ to +25.36‰ with a mean of +9.94‰±4.40‰([WTBX]n[WT]=34). Of the 34 samples analyzed, 22 samples (65%) had greater 15N than +8‰. Compared with that in 1991, nitrogen isotopic compositions indicated that the major sources of NO3- in groundwater changed from mineralized soil organic nitrogen at that time to animal wastes or sewage at present. From the analysis of Cl-, NO3- in the groundwater in the southern part was also affected by sewage from Dongmingqu channel. The remaining 12 samples had a nitrogen isotopic signature of +4‰～+8‰, of which heavier end (+6‰～+8‰) suggested that NO3- mainly come from soil organic nitrogen mineralized and lighter end (+4‰～+6‰) was indicative of NO3-from effluents, which had weak ammonia volatilization and rapid filtration, discharged by fertilizer plants. Based on these studies, the measurements of groundwater management were recommended.
The satellites track review, stable and constant sensor parameters, as well as systematic operation plan enable us to continuously observe and depict the Earth surface and to record distinct changes. For the changed information observed, it is necessary to determine whether the change results from the natural processing of biogeophysical factors or the change results from satellite system or from our targets of interest. Therefore, remote sensing change detection technology is much more complex than remote sensing data processing algorithms usually used in our operation system. It is a newly developed remote sensing temporal data processing system by combining selected radiometric correction, image matching, geometric correction and post classification analysis and vector analysis to finish one assignment. It is change target objective oriented procedure by combining remote sensing information science, earth sciences, statistics and computer sciences. In order to promote the remote sensing change detection in Chinese remote sensing community, we wrote this paper based on what we learned from nearly 200 books, articles, papers, project reports and Internet information.
Due to the persistency of soil organic pollutants and their potential risk to the ecoenvironment and human health, there is an increasing urge to remediate organics polluted soils. Biodegradation of soil organic pollutants by rhizosphere microorganisms has been a research focus. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are ubiquitous symbiotic microbes associated with plants. Compared with bacteria and actinomycete，mycorrhizal fungi are more tolerant to organic pollutants in soil. For instance, some of them can use most persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as exclusive carbon source for obtaining energy. This paper reviewed the research into the relationships among mycorrhizal fungi, plant and organic pollutants during last two decades.
The mechanisms of biodegradation of soil POPs by mycorrhizal fungi fall into three categories:(1) Direct degradation: mycorrhizal fungi can excrete enzymes to decompose organic pollutants to low molecular organic matter, carbohydrate, water and other nontoxic matter to obtain energy; (2) Co-metabolism: mycorrhizal fungi use readily available or low molecular organics as primary carbon and energy source, and use high molecular organic pollutants as the second substrate; (3) Degradation in the mycor-rhizosphere: the quantities of microorganisms in mycor-rhizosphere soil are up to 1000 times more than those in the bulk soils. Degradation of organic pollutants will be enhanced as a result of joint contribution from microbes living in the mycor-rhizosphere.
The inoculation of extraneous microbes such as nitrogen-fixing bacteria and genetically engineered bacteria can be used as a means of mycorrhizosphere control to improve bioremediation efficiency. For instance, the introduction of nitrogenfixing bacteria will change the proposition of the bacteria in mycorrhizosphere soil and reduce C/N to improve the activities of soil microbes. Gene engineering can also be used to modify indigenous bacteria so that they could not only adapt to the local soil conditions easily, but also enhance capability to degrade organic pollutants in soils.
Snow water equivalent (SWE) is an important factor in the variable study of snow storage. However, the only adequately way to estimate the spatial coverage and temporal changes of snow cover in a regional scale is via remote sensing. Passive microwave data, as a complement for visible remote sensing data, despite of its coarse resolution, have the capability to penetrate clouds and snow cover and to provide dual polarization information at different frequencies. In fact, passive microwave remote sensing has played a key role in cryosphere research field in past three decades. This paper reviews the researches of monitoring snow using passive microwave remote sensing data at home and abroad. The applicability of existing algorithms (and models) to estimate snow water equivalent is assessed. Then, the retrieval of SWE in the QinghaiTibetan plateau is discussed in detail, to illustrate the complexity of the estimating SWE using SSM/I data in the special region, and to clarify the reasons that lead to the complexity. Finally, a series of methods and solutions are offered, which provide the theory basis for the further dynamic monitoring on snow in the QinghaiTibetan plateau regions. For improving the retrieval accuracy, several aspects should be taken into account, such as detecting wet snow and dry snow, distinguishing the snow cover and frozen soil in the SSM/I subpixel, and comparison of retrieval results and observation data.
Hot spring water and gases are always concomitant and the fluxes of gases released from different geothermal systems are various. As a results of water-rock reaction and degassing from the deep，the chemical and isotopic composition of geothermal spring gases are diverse because of different settings of the geothermal reservoir in the aspect of tectonic position, lithology and stress status. It is of significance to study the spatiotemporal changes of chemical and isotopic component of hot sprig gases and that may help us realize crust-lithosphere kinetic status. Furthermore, there will be application foreground in the monitoring or predicting earthquake and volcano activity as well as geothermal exploitation and utilization.
The geological phenomenon is very complicated in natural. Existence of 3D geology bodys is universal. With continual deepping of geoscience developing, 3D geomodeling has been though highly of in the earth science world. At present, many 3D geoscience modeling software have been developed .They have been applied at many geoscience fields so as geology,mineral, geophysical exploration,earthquke,enviroment and so on.This paper makes a systematical summary on 3d characteristics of composition, structure, shape, distribution of geological body. It gives a summary on developing status of 3D geomodeling software of geological structure, geological engineering,mine survey, geophyscal and so on in internal and external country. The problems of software developing and the difficultys of 3D geomodeling in gathering, editing, explaining and using of geological data are pointed out.Advances of 3D geomodeling are set forth in 3D spatial data structure,technologys and methods,application resesrch and so on.Finally,meanings of 3D geomodeling are discussed.
Partitioning coefficient of trace elements between mantle minerals and aqueous fluids is important to understand the evolution and tectonics of the Earth. The diversity of the compositions of mantle results from the difference of partitioning coefficients of elements. The composition of aqueous fluids, crystal structure and component of minerals, temperature, pressure, and oxygen fugacity all have effects on partitioning coefficients. Partitioning coefficients of different trace elements in a same mineral or aqueous fluid might have great difference, and which for a same element might vary with different minerals, which cause the differentiation of trace elements in the mantle and result in all kinds of geochemical characteristics mantle. The composition of aqueous fluids has great effect on partitioning coefficient at low temperatures, with increasing temperature, its effect becomes little, whereas the effect of crystal structure and component of minerals becomes important. It should be careful to research the transport and diversity of materials of mantle related with partitioning coefficient owing to these complicated factors.
With the advantage of fast, sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive measurement, magnetic methods can be used as a preliminary method of studying pollution effects before starting timeconsuming and expensive chemical methods. Magnetic parameters such as lowfield magnetic susceptibility also can provide a proxy method of estimating increased pollution of different environmental systems. With more and more attention paid to environmental pollution problems, magnetic methods have been widely used and fast developed since the environmental magnetism was founded about 20 years ago. Recently, magnetic methods have been popularly applied to environmental pollution research, especially heavy metals contamination investigation in Europe. Lots of researches were done and plenty of experience was gained in reconstructing pollution history, monitoring present environmental pollution, tracing and separating the sources of pollution.
In this paper, the advantages, principles and purposes of the magnetic methods are introduced. Some examples of different environmental systems, such as atmosphere, river, lake, harbor, coastal bank and so on, are given to prove the availability and effect of magnetic methods. A new soilprofile kappameter SM400, which enables continuous realtime measurements directly in the field, and a pocketsize magnetic susceptibility meter SM30, which can measure sediments and rocks with extremely low level of magnetic susceptibility, are also reported in this paper as new instruments. Some difficult and key problems are analyzed and summarized, such as how to interpret magnetic mechanism, how to explain the correlation between magnetic parameters and heavy metals, how to separate individual pollution source from multiple pollutions, how to get meaningful magnetic signal from intensive anthropogenic activities. However, to develop well, new methods must be used to analyze and interpret the magnetic data and other related subjects must be imported to environmental magnetism.
Os isotope possesses the higher sensitivity in dating and tracing in marine environment in comparison with other isotopes, and can provide some important information that other isotopes cannot give. Therefore, an increasing attention has been paid to the application of Os isotope in marine sciences in recent years. Some important progresses of the Os isotope application in this aspect are summarized as follows: Firstly, Os isotope composition of Co-rich crust, ferromanganese nodule, organicrich marine sediments, metalliferous carbonates and pelagic clay had been determined by many researchers. Secondly, the Os concentration and residence time in seawater, and Os isotope composition of seawater were precisely measured. Thirdly, the evolution curve of the Os isotopic composition in seawater over the past 80 million years has been roughly constructed. Fourthly, the Osmium isotope composition of the abyssal peridotites, oceanic basalts, rocks in subduction zones and hydrothermal fluids from the Mid-Ocean ridge had been determined. Finally, the constraint factors on the Os isotope composition of seawater were systematically discussed, and some significant implications of the Os isotope compositions in the marine environment for palaeoceanography, palaeoclimatology and palaeogeography had been revealed. The progresses of Os isotope in the marine environment in recent years have been summarized in this review, which may benefits our study on Os isotope in the future.
The idea that vapor phase can transport metals was mentioned in 1644, but the research is very weak because of the lack of enough recognition and new microanalysis techniques and so on. In this paper, we review some recent experimental study and geologic evidence on the vapor transport of ore metals. It should be pointed out that vapor transport of ore metals relies on the interactions between metals and gas-solvent forming (chloride) hydrate of metals that enhance the solubility of metals in vapor phase, not totally due to the volatility of metals. So it is very important to continue the study of vapor transport of ore metals, especially weakly volatile elements. With the further study and the accumulation of base data, more attention will be paid to the important role of vapor transport of ore metals on the formation of ore deposits.
Because the deficiency of the most mapping functions at low cutoff angles, it is necessary to develop new mapping functions so that the GPS observations at low cutoff angles could be used effectively. The dynamic mapping functions with spatial and temporal variety are also needed for the adaptability. Though we can get PWV (precipitable water vapor) with high accuracy, but it cannot provide three-dimensional distribution of water vapor in atmosphere. It has been proved that slant water vapor(SWV) contains vertical information of water vapor. The vertical distribution can be retrieved by tomography using SWV. In this paper, the techniques of how to determine SWV and analyze the threedimensional distribution using SWV and the main current problems are introduced. The assimilation of water vapor retrieved from GPS observations into numerical weather forecast is the main object of GPS meteorology and the forecast can be improved. The progresses of assimilation at present are also reviewed .The developments of monitoring global climate change and atmosphere refraction environment using GPS are also described.
Gold deposits related to shear zones is one of the very important gold deposit types. The deposits are hosted in compressional to transpressional deformation environments at convergent plate margins in accretionary and collision orogens. These deposits formed from Archean to Tertiary, hosting complex wall-rocks, which was metamorphosed from low greenschist facies to granulite facies of metamorphic grade. The deposits had consistent enrichments in Au, Ag, As,Sb, W, Bi, Te, [WTBX]etc[WTBZ],The altered wall-rocks were characteristically rich in CO2、S、K、H2 O、SiO2. Ore-forming fluid is low salinity (3~10 wt%NaCl), near-neutral, enriched in CO2 (≥5mol%)，δ18OH2 O=5‰~12‰. There are different viewpoints on the origin of ore-forming fluid, that is magmatic origin, mantle origin, meteoric water origin, metamorphic origin and mixed fluid origin. Much deeper research into these types of deposits is very important to metallogenic theory and explorations.
Geostatistcs has been an important tool for spatial analysis recently, it has been applied many fields of natural science, such as geography, ecology, soil science and so on. The paper discusses the progress in the theory method of Geostatistics. The whole framework has been pointed out, including estimation, local uncertainty, stochastic simulation and multipoint simulation. Especially the new methods, for example Sequential Gaussian Simulation, LU Simulation, P-field simulation, Annealing Simulation are described. The paper analyzes the difference between multipoint simulation with the traditional geostatistics methods. That is the breakthrough of two-point methodvariogram to training image to describe the spatial structure of objects. Meanwhile, the paper makes a comment on the software of Geostatistics. The need of graphic user's interface, high quality image input and output, together with the absence of spatial analysis function, caused the combination of Geostatistics and GIS is an inevitable trend.
In recent years, much attention has focused on the atmospheric nitrogen cycle, the second major biogenic cycle. The study of the remote polar atmospheres may provide new and valuable data for the study of global atmospheric chemistry. Moreover, the chemical analysis of polar snow and ice has proved to be a very powerful tool in investigating polar atmospheric chemistry, In this paper, the latest progress of the possible causes of shortterm Antarctic NO-3variations, the possible sources, the postdepositional changes and the time and spatial changes of concentrations of NO-3 in the firn and ice of Antarctic ice sheet have been reviewed. The review indicates that although some solar proton events, galactic supernovae, Tunguska metor, volcanic eruptions and nuclear tests may influence the NO-3 concentrations in the firn and ice of Antarctic ice sheet, the lightening in the troposphere and the oxidation of N2O in the stratosphere are the main sources of the background of NO-3 in Antarctic ice sheet. The comprehensive research shows that the NO-3 concentrations recorded in the Antarctic ice sheet may be the results of the sources, transmission paths, depositional processes and postdepositional processes of NO-3 in Antarctic ice sheet. Therefore, in order to reveal the environmental meaning of NO-3 recorded in Antarctic ice sheet, great attentions should be given to a synthetical study of the sources, transmission paths, depositional processes and postdepositional processes of NO-3in Antarctic ice sheet.
A fragile base of the natural resources and environment of China, the largest developing country in the world, can be characterized as compared with others. An analysis result of the national security of natural resource and environment by 10 selected countries with a population over 100 million in the world shows that China is in the place just ahead of Japan, but quite far behind all the eight others. More seriously, China will have to face greater and greater pressures on its weakened natural resources and environment base when a growing population and a rising living standard continue in the next 20 to 50 years. Obviously, China will needs to readjust its development policy if the country really does not want to ruin its weakened natural resources and environmental base totally. This paper, therefore, suggests that the paramount task for the country's sustainable development in the future should be to reconstruct its policy structure with a pronounced target of stabilizing and improving its weakened natural resources and environmental base. For such a purpose, a proposed model can be described as the following:
To concrete the natural resources and environmental base=a severe population control x (improving the production efficiency through intensified resource processing + reconstructing the nation's sustainable capacity through increasing scientific and technological inputs + expanding the nation's material base through international trade + enforcing the commonwealth's consciousness on the national security of the national resources and environment through education).
This series of researches made an integrated approach to the theoretical framework of completivity of assetcapital from physical (or manufactured) asset to ecosystems asset（Eco-asset or capital）. The contents include three parts (1) Asset-capital completivity; (2) Definition, composition, classification and comparison of eco-asset; (3) Economic rights and asset-capital completivity. This paper discussed the first part. The author first reviewed the research progresses in the fields of environmental, resources and ecological economics on physical asset, natural asset and eco-asset or capitals, and pointed out that the current hot topic is focused on integration and systemization from produced asset to ecological asset, which have been represented by researches in completion of asset or capital such as conceptual expansion, evaluation methods and mechanisms of property rights. Secondly, the author briefly reviewed the partiality of conceptual category of asset and capital and their incompletivity in the traditional mainstream neoclassical synthesis economics, including conceptual incompletivity, incompletivity of value and incompletivity of rights. The incompletivity of value is the most important issue for current research in this field. Thirdly, the author summarized the conspicuous progresses and some unsolved issues in current researches of asset-capital completion as follows: (1) Connotational expansion: a conceptual system of manmade, natural, human and social capitals has formed; (2) Expansion in forms of property rights: a multiple property system of private, state-owned, common, public, contingent and non-property, [WTBX]etc[WT], has co-existed; (3) Attribute expansion: economically-based attributes have been extended to include biophysical,eco-environmental and socio-cultural attributes for asset or capital; (4) Expansion in scale system for evaluation: a single scale of value of currency for evaluation has been expanded into a multiple scale system of value, especially, massenergy and spatial scales of value have been included for evaluation; Unsolved key issues include: (1) Conceptual extension of asset or capital needs deep exploration from two levels of humanity and nature; (2) System significance of asset or capital needs be enucleated from a systematical level of structure and function; (3) A combinative mechanism of separability between rights and responsibility for asset or capital; (4) Economic implications of value for interactions among scarcity, efficiency, equity and sustainability in completion of asset or capital are necessarily thoroughly explored; (5) Research on some important facets of complexity between ecological-economic interactions affecting completion process of asset or capital needs to be re-enforced; Finally, the author pointed out that, establishing a systematic concept of asset or capital is in urgent need for promoting its completing process and then the connotation of this systematic concept were discussed, five rules for asset-capital completion have been presented as systemization, life cycle value, coupling of different categories of value, right-responsibility integration as well as structuralization of value from quantification.
The latest research advance in snow ecology in the world was introduced in this paper, including: six aspects: (1) Snow cover and weather system; (2) Physical features of snow and its relation with ecology; (3) Chemical processes of snow and nutrient circulation; (4) Nival microbe; (5) Snow cover and small animal; (6) Relation between snow cover and vegetation. Some contents that need further study in the future were discussed. Generally, snow ecology study in the world had some extensions as follows: (1) Effects of global changes on snow cover and its feedback mechanism was emphasized; (2) Physical characteristics and its ecological functions of snow cover got more attention; (3) The research reports on nutrient circulation processes in snow ecosystem increased; (4) Study of ultra-structure, physiology, eco-physiology, ecology, life history, biochemistry of snow microbe was developed rapidly; (5) Study of small mammalians was attached importance to physiological and ecological and morphological adaptability; (6) Study interests in physiological and ecological adaptability of plant to extreme environment and its relation with snow environment gradients increased; (7) Process study, quantitative study and numerical simulative study were attached more importance in all research field of snow ecology. Study emphases in the near future include mainly: (1) Feedback processes and its mechanism between snow cover and climate system; (2) Physical multiphase of snow cover and its ecological function; (3) earth circulation processes of snow chemical species, especially C, N circulation; (4) Genetic basic and genic transfer on cold adaptability of snow microbe; (5) Dynamics and nutriology and population dynamics on nival animal; (6) feedback processes and its mechanism in multi-scales among snow, vegetation and climate.
Agent-based modeling (ABM) is currently a new active research area in Geocomputation. The methodology of ABM is integration of the theories and technologies of complex adaptive system, artificial life and distributed artificial intelligence. The complex system such as geographical system is conceived as societies of autonomous agents that are able to act both on themselves and on their environments. The agents can communicate and interact with other agents. The determinants of an agent's behavior have a local character and there is no global constraint on the system's evolution. Therefore, it is a good alternative way of simulating the evolutional process of the spatial structure by modeling behaviors of these local active agents and their interactions. Such a multi-agent model allows a greater variety of spatial interaction, including variable extension of the spatial range of interactions, which can be defined by the connectivity of a network according to the characteristics of each agent. Moreover, instead of allowing only a few quantitative variables in non-linear equation and possible states for each cells in cellular automata, the ABM is able to integrate any qualitative or quantitative description of an agent, whose behavior may be very complicated. The flexible modeling method allows for a much more detailed representation of spatial interactions and of some local properties and also makes it possible to introduce new agents or new rules in the model without changing the other parts. This paper gives an overview on the theory background and technology advantages of ABM compared with Equation-based Modeling(EBM) and Cellular Automata(CA). Since interaction and adaptation between agents is the central task of ABM, this article gives a detail discussion on the structure, characteristics and internal mechanisms of an agent. Its related problems such as research advance and the platform of ABM are also surveyed.
From volumetric method to isotope dilution method, K-Ar dating has got its period of maturity. But traditional K-Ar dating techniques could not overcome the errors coming from the influence of isotope mass discrimination. It is possible to establish quantitative relationship between peak height and abundance of Ar. A new method of K-Ar dating with peak comparison method has been produced, in which the spike (38Ar) has not been used again. With this method, the errors coming from mass discrimination could be eliminated. This is especially important to young volcanic rocks dating. Recent volcanic substances contain initial argon, which underwent mass fractionation in some extent, and their isotopic ratios fell on the mass fractionation line. This implies that the fractionation influence the KAr dating of very young samples. According to accurate measurement of 38Ar/36Ar ratio of samples, initial 40Ar can be precisely subtracted from the total Ar and the radiogenic 40Ar obtained. This method can be used in dating old rock and mineral samples, with their results corresponding well with that of K-Ar dilute method and 40Ar-39Ar method, and more importantly, used in very young samples. This method can be used to date samples as young as 2 ~ 5ka, where the error is less than 1ka for high potassium samples and the relative error is not more than 1.5% for samples older than 0.1 Ma. This paper introduces the basic principles and analysis process of peak comparison method and at the same time the requirements and range of application are also discussed.
As a kind of structure due to the difference of rock's rheological character, there is great meaning to study deformation and rheology of rock by means of fish head boudin. Based on the development of Fish head boundin, the unique shape of boundinage can be classified into the following 5 types, they are A type, B type, C type, D type and E type, respectively. The authors modeled B、C、D type and E type of fish head boundin in physical laboratory, and studied the relationship between the length of fish head and the original thickness of layer, and put forward a new method to resume original thickness of layer by use of fish head boundin. Accordingly, K1、 K2 、K3 and K4 are available, and practically being used in resuming original thickness of deformed stratum.
In this paper, urban concentration disciplinarians were pointed out and the urbanization development advantages were analyzed for Lanzhou city. The author think that urban system constructing is the only way for Lanzhou urbanization. Development orientations for Lanzhou urban system were given by the author. Reflection on the whole development strategies, including strategic goals, strategic emphases, strategic guidelines and strategic measures, of the Lanzhou urban system for 2020 were given in the paper, too.
The general circumstances of project application, review and grant in the division of geography, department of earth sciences, national natural science foundation of china in 2003 is introduced, papers supported by the geographical projects granted in 2000 and 2001 is statistically analyzed, and major achievements of the geographical projects ended in 2002 is summarized.