Boreal forest lies in middle-high latitude of the northern hemisphere, where temperature increases strongly. Boreal forest becomes one of the zones most significantly influenced by global climate change. Many models of future climate change scenarios predicted boreal forest would northward shift, even out of the border of China. The changing distribution would have important effects on climate system and global carbon budget. Thus, boreal forest plays a very important role in global climate change and carbon budget. In this paper, we reviewed the newest progress in the study of boreal forest ecosystem from the effects of global climate change and global carbon budget, and some key research tasks in the future were also proposed.