The classification, abundance, distribution, exploration and exploitation technologies of low-permeability oil and gas resources at home and abroad were systematically investigated. It has become an international hot research field for the technologies of low-permeability reservoir identification and adaptation, and the drilling technologies. The current and future focus of the low-permeability oil and gas resources will be concerned as follows: low permeability reservoir quality prediction, fracturing, horizontal well, multi-branch wells, slim hole, advanced injection, explosion layer production, microbial enhanced oil recovery, etc. It is necessary for China to further develop the ultradeep drilling technique, high-resolution seismic exploration and interpretation techniques on complex surface conditions (i.e. desert mountain), complex lithologic logging layer technique, low-permeability oil-bearing zone optimization technique, micro-pore structure technique for low-permeability reservoir, pre-fissure prediction technique for low-permeability reservoirs, development and fracturing optimized injection-production system technique, horizontal wells, fracturing technique for complex structure well, gas injection enhanced oil recovery technique for low-permeability reservoirs, and slim hole technique.