As a disciplinary of studying the spatial and temporal changing regulation of natural and human elements on the earth surface, geography has the attributes of natural science and social science. Facing the worldwide scientific problems of global change and sustainable development, geographers all over the world are taking the opportunities to meet the challenges. The present study fields include interfaces' physical, chemical, biological and human processes, the interaction mechanism of multiple processes, and regulations of coordination between human activities and environment. The train of thought pattern-structure-process-mechanism runs through modern geographical study. As the accumulation of onsite data and the use of high-tech and new methods, quality and quantity of experimental data have been improved. Modern geographical study is expanding to micro and macro scale. It has the main characteristics of modern science. Generally, branch geography study has been deepened and regional comprehensive study has been enhanced. After 1949, Chinese geographical study has made good progress in a comprehensive study of physical geography, land surface natural process study, urban and regional development study and some basic practical studies serving society.