Wumeng mountain area had been located at the northern edge of tropic in remote antiquity, and had been the coastline when ocean had changed into land. With the evolution of living things, abundant biological resources were brought up. People lived for from collecting and hurting to agriculture, from exploiting plain to taking mountain under cultivation successively. Because multi-minority people lived there and the main routeway from Central Plains to southwest border area passed through there, advanced agriculture of Central Plains was firstly adapted in the area. During the period of Ming and Qing dynasties, many Han people migrated there, and the exploitation of biological resources started fully. In order to suiting the development of society and economy, people who lived in different dynasties found many ways from practice to make use of biological resources in contineous ways. Those ways were full of the knowledge about natural law and provided technological support for further development. Because Wumeng mountain area is the upper reaches of Yangtze river and Zhujiang river, we should take ecological construction as basis,and have the priority of the protection of resources over exploitation. Only by those ways can sustainability be fully maintained and can the most benefit be gained.
On the basis of a case, which concerns the villager how to manage their natural resources in the last 200 years in Wumeng mountain area, biodiversity protection is the basis of sustainable management was shown, and the function of the government and the local codes about protection and utilization of land , forest and water resources also were explanation. With increasing of population, consumption of resources excessively and development of science and technology rapidly, effective administration rules and regulations are important for ensuring sustainable management.
In the sustainable management of biological resources, basic scientific issues and new enterprise direction were proposed briefly and the management of future sustainable development were discussed.