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地球科学进展  2013, Vol. 28 Issue (9): 988-996    DOI: 10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2013.09.0988
综述与评述     
河岸侵蚀研究进展综述
戴海伦1, 代加兵1, 舒安平2, 张科利1*
1.地表过程与资源生态国家重点实验室,北京师范大学地理学与遥感科学学院,北京 100875;2.水沙科学教育部重点实验室, 北京师范大学环境学院,北京 100875
Review of River Bank Erosion Research
Dai Hailun1, Dai Jiabing1, Shu Anping2, Zhang Keli1
1.State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, School of Geography, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875,China;2. Key Laboratory for Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875,China
 全文: PDF(991 KB)   HTML
摘要:

岸侵蚀是河流横向演变的重要方式,也是威胁沿岸土地、生态环境及人民生命财产安全的重要方式。通过回顾国内外河岸侵蚀的研究历程,将主要研究分为4个方面并加以评述:①河岸侵蚀的过程机制。河岸侵蚀是多种过程的复合体,许多学者提出不同的理论来解释。其中,河岸稳定性理论得到了较为广泛的认可。②河岸侵蚀的影响因素。影响河岸塌岸的因素主要有水文、土壤、河流、气象、岸坡和植物等,但不同因素在塌岸过程中的重要性是不等价的,甚至同一因素在不同河段会对河岸崩塌产生迥异的影响。③河岸侵蚀量的估算。随着测量手段的不断改进,侵蚀量测量的时间间隔越来越短,空间范围越来越大,精度越来越高。早期的测量中,广泛应用了简便易行、经济适用的侵蚀针法,而如今,遥感影像和摄影测量技术已逐渐成为主流方法。④河岸侵蚀的模型模拟。目前河岸侵蚀的模拟模型多基于水力学、土力学等基本理论,研究岸坡稳定性。在对以上4个方面进行回顾的基础上,讨论了目前研究存在的主要问题,并对未来河岸侵蚀研究工作开展进行展望。提出应首先研究河段河岸侵蚀的时空特征,选择合理的方法、技术体系,通过微观与宏观相结合的方式,对河岸侵蚀的时空分布进行量化分析,从而为预报河岸侵蚀及制定防治措施奠定基础。

关键词: 河岸侵蚀崩岸侵蚀量估算评估模型    
Abstract:

Riverbank erosion is a critical style of lateral channel change. It threatens the arable land, ecological environment, as well as the people’s lives and properties along the river. Through review on the research process of riverbank erosion globally, four aspects were classified and described: ①Riverbank erosion processes and mechanisms. The occurence and development of riverbank erosion is quite complicated, composed by multiple processes, which are hard to separate with each other. Therefore, the scholars have proposed a lot of theories to describe the processes. Among the theories, “Riverbank Stability Theory” has been widely recognized and developed. ②Factors of riverbank erosion. The key factors that affect riverbank erosion include hydrology conditions of the river, soil properties, geomorphology, vegetation of the river bank and meteorology. However, it should be noted that the importance of different factors in the collapse process is not equivalent and effects of the same factor on different rivers are various. ③Riverbank erosion estimation. With the tremendous improvement of quantification recently, time interval of erosion measurement is shortening continuously, while spatial scale is larger and larger. At the same time, resolution is becoming increasingly high. Erosion pin was commonly used in early studies because of its easy use and low cost, whereas remote sensing and digital photogrammetry have more advantages in modern measurement. ④Modeling of riverbank erosion. At present, the models are mainly based on the fundamental theories of hydraulics and soil mechanics, to study riverbank stability. According to the review of the four aspects above, problems of recent researches and prospects of possible development in the future were discussed. The researchers should pay much attention to temporal spatial distribution of riverbank erosion first before further research. The study would be greatly helpful to the researchers for the specific river reach when choosing the proper theories as well as technologies for measurement and quantification, study the riverbank erosion through both macroscopic and microscopic views, and predict the erosion for management purpose.

Key words: River bank erosion    River bank collapse    Estimation of erosion amount    Assessment model
收稿日期: 2013-07-11 出版日期: 2013-09-10
:  P343.1  
基金资助:

国家重点基础研究发展计划项目“塌岸淤床过程与河道冲淤演变规律”(编号:2011CB403304)资助

通讯作者: 张科利(1962-),男,陕西宝鸡人,教授,主要从事土壤与环境研究.E-mail:keli@bnu.edu.cn     E-mail: 张科利 keli@bnu.edu.cn
作者简介: 戴海伦(1986-),女,上海人,博士研究生,主要从事水土资源与环境研究.E-mail:daihailun@mail.bnu.edu.cn
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戴海伦, 代加兵, 舒安平, 张科利. 河岸侵蚀研究进展综述[J]. 地球科学进展, 2013, 28(9): 988-996.

Dai Hailun, Dai Jiabing, Shu Anping, Zhang Keli. Review of River Bank Erosion Research. Advances in Earth Science, 2013, 28(9): 988-996.

链接本文:

http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/10.11867/j.issn.1001-8166.2013.09.0988        http://www.adearth.ac.cn/CN/Y2013/V28/I9/988

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